The Riddle as a Learning and Educational Tool


The primary objective of the present research study is to examine the implications of the implementation of an innovative program for the creation of learning stimulation in a challenging environment, through riddles, on the perception of the learning experience in its different aspects. Previous research studies maintain that in a different learning environment, the students’ achievements will be different. One of the goals of the present research study is to examine whether an identical challenging environment creates different or similar results among a population of children with difference in their intelligence level, or in a focused manner, between the achievements of gifted and talented students and students in the traditional learning environment.

Share and Cite:

Shaham, H. (2013) The Riddle as a Learning and Educational Tool. Creative Education, 4, 388-395. doi: 10.4236/ce.2013.46055.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ames, C. A. (1990). Motivation: what teachers need to know? Teachers College Record, 91, 409-421.
[2] Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1999). Achievements goals in the classroom: Students’ learning and motivations processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260-267.
[3] Anderson, C. S. (1982). The research for school climate: A review of the research. Review of Education Research, 52, 368-420. doi:10.3102/00346543052003368
[4] Arbel, B. (1990). Riddles (mathematical) and mathematics. Strong Numbers, Journal for Teaching Mathematics in the Elementary School, Haifa University, Beyt Berl College, The Ministry of Education. (Hebrew)
[5] Assor, A. (2001). Cultivation of internal motivation to learn in the school. In A. Assor, & A. Kaplan (Eds.), Education of thinking, motivation to learn: New perceptions of motivation, number 20, Jerusalem: The Branco Weiss Institute for the Cultivation of Thinking. (Hebrew)
[6] Bar-El, Z. (1996). Educational psychology. Even Yehuda: Reches Publishing House, Educational Projects Ltd. (Hebrew)
[7] Birenbaum, M. (1993). Who is afraid of a research study? Planning and writing a research proposal and research report in the behavioral sciences. Tel Aviv: University Press Publishing House. (He brew)
[8] Brooks, J. G. (2000). Towards the constructivist class: Searching for understanding. Jerusalem: The Branco Weiss Institute for the Cultivation of Thought. (Hebrew)
[9] Dagan, T. (1989). Contribution of the characteristics of background, structure factors, and personal traits to the scholastic achievements in the elementary school. Unpublishing MS Thesis, Tel Aviv. (Hebrew)
[10] Fraser, B. J., & Walberg, H. J. (1991). Educational environments: Evaluation, antecedents, and consequences. Oxford: Pergamon Press Plc.
[11] Fried, Y. (1984). Jean Piaget: Psychology and method. Tel Aviv: Broad cast University Series, Ministry of Defense. (Hebrew)
[12] Garcia, T., & Pintrich, P. R. (1996). Assessing students’ motivation and learning strategies in the classroom context: The motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. In M. Birenbaum, & F. J. R. C. Dochy (Eds.), Alternatives in assessment of achievements, learning processes and prior knowledge. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 319-339. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-0657-3_12
[13] Greeno, J. G. (1997). Response: One claims that answer the wrong question. Educational Researcher, 20, 5-17.
[14] Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. (1997). Innovative pedagogy: A collection of articles. Haifa: Haifa University, The Faculty of Education. (Hebrew)
[15] Hollingworth, L. S. (1942). Children above 180 IQ, Stanford-Binet; origin and development. Yonkers, NY: The World Dood Company. doi:10.1037/13574-000
[16] Huesmann, R. L., & Guerra, N. G. (1997). Children’s normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior. Journal of Psychology, 72, 408-419.
[17] Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1964). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, Hand book II: Affective domain. New York: David Mckay Company In corporated.
[18] Klein , J., & Weiss, I. (2007). Towards an integration of intuitive and systematic decision making in education. Journal of Educational Administration, 45, 265-277.
[19] Levin, T., Shohami, A., & Spulsky, D. (2003). Scholastic achievements of immigrant students: summary of findings and recommendations.
[20] Michenbaum, D., Burland, S., Gruson, L., & Cameron, R. (1998). Meta-cognitive assessment. In S. R. Yussen (Ed.), The growth of reflection in children (pp. 3-30). Orlando: Academic Press, Inc.
[21] Oden, M. H. (1968). The fulfillment of promise: 40-year follow-up of the Terman gifted group. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 77, 3-93.
[22] Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1972). The psychology of the child. Tel Aviv: Sifriat Poalim Press. (Hebrew)
[23] Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 8, 33-40. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.33
[24] Pintrich, P. R. (1999a). A process-oriented view of student motivation and cognition. In J. Stark, & Mets (Eds.), Improving teaching and learning through research: New directions for institutional research (Vol. 57, pp. 65-70). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[25] Pintrich, P. R. (1999b). Student learning and college teaching. In R. E. Young, & K. E. Eble (Eds.), College teaching and learning, preparing for new commitments: New directions for teaching and learning (Vol. 33, pp. 71-86). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[26] Pokay, P., & Blumenfeld, P. C. (1990). Predicting achievement early and late in the semester: The role of motivation and use of learning strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 41-50. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.41
[27] Renzulle, J. S. (1981). Psychology and education of gifted. New York: Irvington.
[28] Rotem, A., & Peled, Y. (2006). Towards the online school. Tel Aviv: Mofet Institute Press. (Hebrew)
[29] Salomon, G. (2000a). Pedagogy and technology: What directs what? Lecture in the Shared Discussion of Academia and the Ministry of Education on the Topic of the Integration between Technology and Pedagogy, 2003.
[30] Salomon, G. (2000b). Technology and education in the era of information. Tel Aviv: Haifa University, Zmora Beitan. (Hebrew)
[31] Smith, J. (2002). Learning style: Fashion fad or lever for change? The applications of learning style theory to inclusive curriculum delivery. Innovation in Education and Teaching International, 39, 63-70. doi:10.1080/13558000110102913
[32] Sternberg, R. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
[33] Sternberg, R. (1994a). Allowing for thinking styles. Educational Leadership, 52, 581-588
[34] Sternberg, R. (1994b). Thinking styles: Theory and assessment at the interface between intelligence and personality. In R. J. Sternberg, & P. Ruggis (Eds.), Intelligence and personality (pp. 169-187). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[35] Sternberg, R. (1997). Thinking styles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511584152
[36] Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. (1991). Thinking styles inventory. Tal lahassee, FL: Star Mountain Projects, Inc.
[37] Tannenbaum, A. J. (1983). Gifted children. New York: Macmillan.
[38] Terman, L. M. (1925). Mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
[39] Vygotsky, L. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: The I.M.T. Press. doi:10.1037/11193-000
[40] Zedkiyahu, S. (1998). Classroom climate, nature and practice. Jerusalem: Ministry of Education and Culture. (Hebrew)
[41] Zohar, E. (1996). To learn, to think, and to learn to think. Jerusalem: The Ministry of Education and the Branco Weiss Institute for the Cultivation of Thinking. (Hebrew)
[42] Zorman, R. (1993). Giftedness. Jerusalem: The Division of the Gifted and Science Loving Youth, The Ministry of Education and Culture. (Hebrew)

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.