Phenytoin-Induced Elevation of the Intracellular Calcium Concentration by Stimulation of Calcium-Sensing Receptors in Gingival Fibroblasts


Background:The mechanism concerning gingival overgrowth as a side effect of phenytoin, a therapeutic drug for epilepsy has been still unclear. As one of mechanisms, by measuring the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of the gingival fibroblasts, it has been advocated that there is relationship between gingival overgrowth and phenytoin-induced alterations in the [Ca2+]i in gingival fibroblasts. To confirm that phenytoin elevates the [Ca2+]i, and if so, to find out its mode of action. Methods: The [Ca2+]i was measured with the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2/AM. Cells were soaked in a flexiperm chamber and perfused by a saline. Drugs at appropriate concentrations were added to the perfusate. Results: Phenytoin concentration-dependently elevated the [Ca2+]i. NPS2390, a calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) blocker, significantly suppressed the phenytoin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. U73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, inihibited the phenytoin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. TMB-8, a blocker of inositol triphophate (IP3) receptors in ER, significantly depressed the phenytoin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. m-3M3FBS, a PLC activator, enhanced the phenytoin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. From the findings obtained, it is discussed as follows: The Ca2+-free saline and NPS2390, a CaSR antagonist, inhibited the phenytoin-induced [Ca2+]i rise; These results indicate that CaSRs exist in gingival fibroblasts and that CaSRs are involved in the phenytoin-induced [Ca2+]i rise; U73122 and TMB-8 depressed the phenytoin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation and furthermore, m-3M3FBS enhanced the phenytoin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation, showing that the Ca2+ release from the ER is involved in the phenytoin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. Conclusion: We have concluded that phenytoin elevates the [Ca2+]i by activating CaSRs and enhancing the Ca2+ release from the Ca2+ stores in gingival fibroblasts.

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T. Hattori, K. Nakano and T. Kawakami, "Phenytoin-Induced Elevation of the Intracellular Calcium Concentration by Stimulation of Calcium-Sensing Receptors in Gingival Fibroblasts," Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 261-265. doi: 10.4236/pp.2013.42037.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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