Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria


River flooding has become a widely distributed and devastating natural disaster that has caused significant damages both economically and socially. Recently, it displaced millions of people in Nigeria and submerged several square kilometres of landed area in general and farmlands in particular. Although, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) predicted the occurrence of the flood disaster and advised the relocation of residence from the floodplain to the high ground, but spatial information pertaining to the areal extent vulnerable to the hazard was not made available. This study attempted to assess the spatial impact of the October 2012 flooding of the Niger-Benue basin on the surrounding areas using the moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometre (MODIS) data of NASA Terra satellite and developed a geospatial methodology for detecting and extracting the flood risk areas and the vulnerable population to flooding within the basin. The integration of remotely sensed data and other spatial and non-spatial data within the GIS platform was able to produce series of thematic maps which was used to generate a geospatial database for flood risk analysis and assessment. The result of the analysis effectively demonstrated the contribution of geospatial methods in mitigating and monitoring the effect of flooding along the Niger-Benue basin. It was therefore, suggested that government agencies and policy makers should adopt this powerful technique for reliable and well synthesized information which is a vital component of flood risk assessment and planning.

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F. Nkeki, P. Henah and V. Ojeh, "Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria," Journal of Geographic Information System, Vol. 5 No. 2, 2013, pp. 123-135. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2013.52013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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