The Impact of Tourism Revenue on the Local Communities’ Livelihood: A Case Study of Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania


The tourism industry is the world’s largest industry and is being utilized for economic development and rapid growth in many developing countries. In Tanzania the tourism industry is growing at an annual rate of almost 5% and contributes 17% to GDP. Tanzanian tourism is based on wildlife tourism which requires not only programs for the conservation and protection of flora, fauna and the environment but also for job and wealth creation for the indigenous population who often pay a cost in lost land usage for conservation and tourism. Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) is unique in Tanzania in that it is a conservation area but contains a population of almost 70,000 people (mostly Maasai) living in it. This paper, based on a survey of 119 local Maasai and 39 employees of the NCA’s governing authority, examines whether tourism revenue directed to the Maasai pastoralist communities has an impact on their economic development and how much does this revenue complement other income sources. We found that while members of the local community are economically benefiting, many people are still not aware of tourism’s potential for them.

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Melita, A. and Mendlinger, S. (2013) The Impact of Tourism Revenue on the Local Communities’ Livelihood: A Case Study of Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. Journal of Service Science and Management, 6, 117-126. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2013.61012.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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