Biochemical Composition and Disease Resistance in Newly Synthesized Amphidiploid and Autotetraploid Peanuts


Genetic diversity in peanut (Arachishypogaea L.) is narrow due to its evolution and domestication processes. Amphidiploids and autotetraploids (newly synthesized tetraploids) were created to broaden its genetic base. Molecular analysis has shown that the newly synthesized tetraploids had broader genetic base; and were genetically divergent when compared to cultivated peanut. Nutritional composition relative to oil, fatty acid composition, O/L ratio, protein, iodine value and presence of plant proteinase inhibitors such as trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors were studied in the synthesized tetraploids. Some of the newly synthesized tetraploids had higher amounts of proteinase inhibitors. Evaluation of newly synthesized tetraploids revealed several lines resistant to late leaf spot (LLS) and peanut bud necrosis disease (PBND).

Share and Cite:

K. Shilpa, G. Sunkad, S. Kurella, S. Marri, K. Padmashree, D. Jadhav, K. Sahrawat and N. Mallikarjuna, "Biochemical Composition and Disease Resistance in Newly Synthesized Amphidiploid and Autotetraploid Peanuts," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 169-176. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.42024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] N. Mallikarjuna, S. Senthilvel and D. Hoisington, “Development of Synthetic Groundnuts (Arachishypogaea L.) to Broaden the Genetic Base of Cultivated Groundnut,” Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, Vol. 58, No. 6, 2011, pp. 889-907 . doi:10.1007/s10722-010-9627-8
[2] J. C. Sanford, “Ploidy Manipulations,” In: J. N. Moore and J. Janick, Eds., Methods in Fruit Breeding, Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, 1983, pp. 100-123.
[3] C. A. Ryan, “Protease Inhibitors in Plants: Genes for Improving Defenses against Insects and Pathogens,” Annual Review of Phytopathology, Vol. l28, 1990, pp. 425-449. doi:10.1146/
[4] L. P. Metcalf, A. A. Schmitz and J. K. Pelka, “Rapid Preparation of Fatty Acid Esters from Lipids for Gas Chromatographic Analysis,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1966, pp. 514-515. doi:10.1021/ac60235a044
[5] R. W. Mozingo, T. A. Coffelt and J. C. Wynne, “Quality Evaluation of Virginia-Type Peanut Varieties Released from 1944-1985,” Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 335, 1988, pp. 1-28.
[6] O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr and R. J. Randall, “Protein Measurement with the Folin Phenol Reagent,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 193, No. 1, 1951, pp. 265-275.
[7] E. R. Prasad, A. Dutta-Gupta and K. Padmasree, “Insecticidal Potential of Bowman-Birk Proteinase Inhibitors from Red Gram (Cajanuscajan) and Black Gram (Vignamungo) against Lepidopteran Insect Pests,” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2010, pp. 80-88. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2010.05.003
[8] B. F. Erlanger, N. Kokowsky and W. Cohen, “The Preparation and Properties of Two New Chromogenic Substrates of Trypsin,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 95, No. 2, 1961, pp. 271-278. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(61)90145-X
[9] R. Mueller and J. K. P. Weder, “Isolation and Characterization of Two Trypsin-Chymotrypsin Inhibitors from Lentil Seeds (Lens culinaris Medik.),” Journal of Food Biochemistry, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1989, pp. 39-63. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4514.1989.tb00384.x
[10] M. S. Basu, “Peanut Bud Necrosis Disease: Activities in the Indian National Programme,” In: A. A. M. Buiel, J. E. Parlevliet and J. M. Lenne, Eds., Recent Studies on Peanut Bud Necrosis Disease, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patencheru, pp. 61-63.
[11] G. Sunkad, P. V. Kenchanagoudar and V. B. Naragund, “Identification of Sources for Field Resistance to Peanut Bud Necrosis Disease in Groundnut,” Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2001, pp. 646-648.
[12] P. V. Subbarao, P. Subrahmanyam and P. M. Reddy, “A Modified Nine Point Disease Scale for Assessment of Rust and Late Leafspot of Groundnut,” 2nd International Congress of French Phytopathological Society, 28-30 November 1990, Montpellier, p. 25.
[13] P. Subramanyam and D. McDonald, “Groundnut Rust Disease: Epidemiology and Control. ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics), 1987. Groundnut Rust Disease,” Proceedings of a Discussion Group Meeting, 24-28 September 1984, ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India.
[14] C. T. Young and G. R. Waller, “Rapid Oleic/Lenoleic Micro-Analytical Procedure for Peanuts,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 20, No. 6, 1972, pp. 1116-1118. doi:10.1021/jf60184a009
[15] L. C. Mercer, J. C. Wynne and C. T. Young, “Inheritance of Fatty Acid Content in Peanut Oil,” Peanut Science, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1990, pp. 17-21.
[16] R. M. Kosslak, M. A. Chamberlin, R. G. Palmer and B. A. Bowen, “Programmed Cell Death in the Root Cortex of Soybean Root Necrosis Mutants,” The Plant Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1997, pp. 729-745. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1997.11040729.x
[17] Anonymous, “The Medium Term Plan, 1994-1998, (Limited Distribution),” International Crops Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru, 1992.
[18] A. S. Reddy, L. J. Reddy, N. Mallikarjuna, M. D. Abduahman, Y. V. Reddy, P. J. Bramel and D. V. R. Reddy, “Identification of Resistance to Peanut Bud Necrosis Virus (PBNV) in Wild Arachis Germplasm,” Annals of Applied Biology, Vol. 137, No. 2, 2000, pp. 135-139. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2000.tb00045.x
[19] S. L. Dwivedi, S. Gurtu and S. N. Nigam, “ALFP Diversity among Selected Foliar Diseases Resistant Groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) Germplasm,” Indian Journal of Genetic Resource, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2000, pp. 46-50.
[20] S. Pande and J. Narayan Rao, “Resistance of Wild Arachis Species to Late Leaf Spot and Rust in Greenhouse Trials,” Plant Diseases, Vol. 85, No. 8, 2001, pp. 851-855. doi:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.8.851

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.