Atmospheric Trajectory and Chemical Transport Modelling for Elevated Ozone Events in Denmark


In this study, three Danish sites having the longest (1990-2004) time-series of ozone measurements were analysed on inter-annual, monthly and diurnal cycle variability as well as elevated and lowered ozone concentration events were identified. The atmospheric trajectory (HYSPLIT) and dispersion (HIRLAM + CAMx) models were employed to study dominating atmospheric transport patterns associated with elevated events and to evaluate spatio-temporal variability of ozone specific episode and typical seasonal patterns for Denmark. It was found that generally inter-annual variability has a positive trend, and events with low ozone concentration (≤10 μg/m3) continued to diminish. On a monthly scale, the highest and lowest mean concentrations are observed in May and November-December, respectively. The elevated concentrations (≥120 μg/m3) are observed during March-September. On a diurnal cycle, it is observed mostly during 13-16 of local time, and more frequent (ten-fold) compared with nighttime-early morning hours. For ozone elevated events, several sectors (or pathways of atmospheric transport) were identified depending on the sites’ positions, showing the largest (39%) number of such events associated with the north-western sector, and lowest (13% each)—southwestern and northern sectors. For each site, less than 60 events showed very high concentrations (≥180 μg/m3). Among 12 episodes, one longest elevated episode (19-21 Jun 2000) simultaneously registered at all sites and characterized by dominating transport from the south-southwestern sector, low wind speed, clear-sky, and multiple inversions was studied using modelling tools. For this episode, both measurements and modeling (trajectory and dispersion) results showed a relatively good agreement.

Share and Cite:

A. Mahura, R. Nuterman, I. Petrova and B. Amstrup, "Atmospheric Trajectory and Chemical Transport Modelling for Elevated Ozone Events in Denmark," Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 87-99. doi: 10.4236/acs.2013.31011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. W. Schmalwiesera, G. Schaubergera and M. Janouch, “Temporal and Spatial Variability of Total Ozone Content over Central Europe: Analysis in Respect to the Biological Effect on Plants,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 120, No. 1-4, 2003, pp. 9-26. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2003.08.008
[2] Ch. Vlachokostasa, S. A. Nastisb, Ch. Achillasa, K. Kalogeropoulosa, I. Karmirisc, N. Moussiopoulosa, E. Chourdakisa, G. Baniasa and N. Limperia, “Economic Damages of Ozone Air Pollution to Crops Using Combined Air Quality and GIS Modeling,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 44, No. 28, 2010, pp. 3352-3361.
[3] A. R. MacKenziea, R. M. Harrison, I. Colbeckb, P. A. Clarkd and R. H. Varey, “The Ozone Increments in Urban Plumes,” Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 159, No. 2-3, 1995, pp. 91-99. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(95)04312-O
[4] X. V. Francisa, C. Chemela, R. S. Sokhia, E. G. Nortonb, H. M. A. Rickettsb and B. E. A. Fisher, “Mechanisms Responsible for the Build-up of Ozone over South East England during the August 2003 Heatwave,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 45, No. 38, 2011, pp. 6880-6890. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.04.035
[5] J. Niatthijsen, P. J. H. Builtjes, E. W. Meijer and G. Boersen, “Modelling Cloud Effects on Ozone on a Regional Scale: A Case Study,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 31, No. 19, 1997, pp. 3227-3238. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00064-2
[6] R. G. Derwenta, D. S. Stevensonc, W. J. Collinsb and C. E. Johnsonb, “Intercontinental Transport and the Origins of the Ozone Observed at Surface Sites in Europe,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, No. 13, 2004, pp. 1891-1901. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.008
[7] R. G. Derwent, “The Long Range Transport of Ozone within Europe and Its Control,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 63, No. 4, 1990, pp. 299-318. doi:10.1016/0269-7491(90)90137-2
[8] A. Mahura, R. Nuterman, I. Petrova and A. Gross, “Elevated Ozone Levels in Denmark: Analysis Employing Trajectory and Chemical Transport Modelling,” Abstracts of the European Meteorological Society (EMS) Annual Meeting, Toulouse, 28 September-2 October 2009, p. 70.
[9] A. Mahura, R. Nuterman, I. Petrova and B. Amstrup, “Potential Source Regions for Elevated Ozone Events in Denmark,” Abstracts of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly, Vienna, Vol. 12, 2-7 May 2010, p. 11374.
[10] A. Stohl, “Computation, Accuracy and Applications of Trajectories—A Review and Bibliography,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 32, No. 6, 1998, pp. 947-966. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00457-3
[11] R. R. Draxler and G. D. Rolph, “HYSPLIT—Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model,” NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, 2003.
[12] G. D. Rolph, “Real-Time Environmental Applications and Display System (READY) Website,” NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, 2003.
[13] E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, A. Leetmaa, R. Reynolds, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, R. Jenne and D. Joseph, “The NCEP/ NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 77, No. 3, 1996, pp. 437-470. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2
[14] X. Yang, C. Petersen, B. Amstrup, B. Andersen, H. Feddersen, M. Kmit, U. Korsholm, K. Lindberg, K. Mogensen, B. H. Sass, K. Sattler and N. W. Nielsen, “The DMIHIRLAM Upgrade in June 2004,” DMI Technical Report, No. 05-09, 2005, p. 35.
[15] P. Unden, L. Rontu, H. Jarvinen, P. Lynch, J. Calvo, G. Cats, J. Cuxart, K. Eerola, C. Fortelius, J. A. GarciaMoya, C. Jones, G. Lenderlink, A. McDonald, R. McGrath, B. Navascues, N. W. Nielsen, V. Degaard, E. Rodriguez, M. Rummukainen, R. Room, K. Sattler, B. H. Sass, H. Savijarvi, B. W. Schreur, R. Sigg, H. The and A. Tijm, “HIRLAM-5 Scientific Documentation,” Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrkoping, 2002.
[16] H. Savijarvi, “Fast Radiation Parameterization Schemes for Mesoscale and Short-Range Forecast Models,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 29, No. 6, 1990, pp. 437-447.
[17] G. Lenderink and A. A. M. Holtslag, “An Updated Length-Scale Formulation for Turbulent Mixing in Clear and Cloudy Boundary Layers,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 130, No. 604, 2004, pp. 3405-3427. doi:10.1256/qj.03.117
[18] J. Noilhan and S. Planton, “A Simple Parameterization of Land Surface Processes for Meteorological Models,” Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 117, No. 3, 1989, pp. 536-549.
[19] M. W. Gery, G. Z. Witten, J. P. Killus and M. C. Dodge, “A Photochemical Kinetics Mechanism for Urban and Regional Scale Computer Modelling,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 94, No. D10, 1989, pp. 925-956. doi:10.1029/JD094iD10p12925
[20] S. Madronich, “The Prohospheric Visible Ultra-Violet (TUV) Model Webpage,” National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, 2002.
[21] J. Kuenen, H. Denier van der Gon, A. Visschedijk, H. van der Brugh, S. Finardi, P. Radice, A. d’Allura, S. Beevers, J. Theloke, M. Uz-basich, C. Honoré and O. Perrussel, “A Base Year (2005) MEGAPOLI European Gridded Emission Inventory (Final Version). Deliverable D1.6,” MEGAPOLI Scientific Report 10-17, 2010, p. 39.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.