Comparison of 4 Multi-User Passive Network Topologies for 3 Different Quantum Key Distribution
Fabio Garzia, Roberto Cusani
DOI: 10.4236/cn.2010.23025   PDF    HTML     7,137 Downloads   11,923 Views   Citations


The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of four passive optical network topologies in implementing multi-user quantum key distribution, using 3 protocols proposed by quantum cryptography (B92, EPR, and SSP). The considered networks are the passive-star network, the optical-ring network based on the Signac interferometer, the wavelength-routed network, and the wavelength-addressed bus network. The quantum bit-error rate and sifted key rate for each of these topologies are analysed to determine their suitability for providing quantum key distribution-service to networks of various sizes. The efficiency of the three considered protocols is also determined.

Share and Cite:

F. Garzia and R. Cusani, "Comparison of 4 Multi-User Passive Network Topologies for 3 Different Quantum Key Distribution," Communications and Network, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2010, pp. 166-182. doi: 10.4236/cn.2010.23025.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, “Quan- tum Cryptography,” Reveiw of Modern Physics, Vol.2, Septemner 2001, pp. 1-57.
[2] W. K. Wootters and W. Zurek, “A Single Quantum Can- not be Cloned,” Nature, Vol. 299, London, 1982. pp. 802-803.
[3] P.Kumavor, A. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor and B. Wang, “Comparison of Four Multi-user Quantum Key Distribu- tion Schemes Over Passive Optical Networks,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol 23, No.1 January 2005, p.268.
[4] C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin Tossing,” IEEE Confonference on Computers, Systems Signal Processing, Bangalore, 1984.
[5] C. Bennett, “Quantum Cryptography Using Any Two Non-orthogonal States,” Physical Review Letter, Vol. 68, 1992, p. 3121,
[6] K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, P. D. Townsend and G. S. Buller, “A Short Wavelength Giga Hertz Clocked Fiber-Optic Quantum Key Distribution System,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol 40, No7, July 2004, pp. 900-908.
[7] A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen, “Can Quantum- Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete,” Physical Review, Vol. 41, May 1935, p. 777.
[8] M. M. Ishtiaq Khan and M. Sher: “Protocols for Secure Quantum Transmission: a Review of Recent Develop- ments,” Pakistan Journal of Information and Technology Vol. 2, No. 3, 2003, pp. 265-276.
[9] J. Bell, “On the Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen Paradox,” Physics, Vol. 1, 1964, pp. 195-200.
[10] D. Bru? and N. Lutkenhaus, “Quantum Key Distribution: From Principles to Practicalities,” Vol. 2, September 1999.
[11] C. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail and J. Smolin, “Experimental Quantum Cryptography”, Journal of Cryptography, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1992, pp. 3-28.
[12] A. Muller, J. Breguet and N. Gisin, “Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Cryptography Using Polarized Photons in Optical Fiber Over More Than 1 km,” Europhysics Letter, Vol. 23, 1993, pp. 383-388.
[13] D. Stucki et al., “Photon Counting for Quantum Key Distribution With Peltier Cooled InGaAs/InP APD’s,” Journal of Modern Optics, Vol. 48, No. 13, 2001, pp. 1967-1981.
[14] P. D. Townsend, “Quantum Cryptography on Multi-user Optical Fiber Networks,” Journal of Nature, Vol. 385, No.2, 1997, pp. 47-49.
[15] T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “Circular Type Quantum Key Distribution,” IEEE Photon Technical Letter, Vol. 14, No. 4, April 2002, pp. 576-578.
[16] C. A. Fuchs, N. Gisin, R. B. Griffiths, C. S. Niu and A. Peres, “Optimal Eavesdropping in Quantum Crypto- graphy I,” Physical Review A, Vol. 56, 1997, pp. 1163.
[17] C. A. Fuchs and A. Peres, “Quantum State Disturbance VS. Information Gain: Uncertainty Relations for Quantum Information,” Physical Review A, Vol. 53, 1996, pp. 2038-2045.
[18] D. Bru?, “Optimal Eavesdropping in Quantum Crypto- graphy With Six States,” Physical Reveiw Letter, Vol. 81, 1998, p. 3018.
[19] D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordi and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Key Distribution Over 67 km With a Plug&Play System,” New Journal of Physics, Vol. 4, July 2002, pp. 1-8.
[20] P. A. Hiskett et al., “Eighty Kilometer Transmission Experiment Using an InGaAs/InP SPAD-based Quantum Cryptography Receiver Operating at 1.55 ?m,” Journal of Modern Optics, Vol. 48, No. 13, July 2001, pp. 1957-1966.
[21] D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, “Autocompensating Quan- tum Cryptography,” New Journal of Physics, Vol. 4, July 2002, pp. 1-15.
[22] X. Fang and R. O. Claus, “Polarization-dependent All- fiber Wavelength Division Multiplexer Based on a Signac Interferometer,” Optical Letter, Vol. 20, No. 20, October 1995, pp. 2146-2148,.
[23] P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, “Enhanc- ed Single Photon Fringe Visibility in a 10 km-long Prototype Quantum Cryptography Channel,” Electronics Letter, Vol. 29, July 1993, pp. 1291-1293.
[24] C. Marand and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum Key Distri- bution Over Distances as Long as 30 km,” Optical Letter, Vol. 20, No. 16, August 1995, pp. 1695-1697.
[25] H. Zbinden, “Interferometry With Faraday Mirrors for Quantum Cryptography,” Electronics Letter, Vol. 33, 1997, pp. 586-588.
[26] H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, N. Kimura and K. Nakamura, “Single Photon Interference Experiment Over 100 km for Quantum Cryptography System Using a Balanced Gated-mode Photon Detector,” Electronics Letter, Vol. 39, No. 16, 2003, pp. 1199-1201.
[27] S. J. D. Phoenix et al., “Multi-user Quantum Crypto- graphy on Optical Networks,” Journal of Modern Optics, Vol. 42, No. 6, January 1995, pp. 1155–1163.
[28] A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and Play Systems for Quantum Cryptography,” Applied Physics Letter, Vol. 70, No. 7, February 1997, pp. 793–795.
[29] E. Waks et al., “Secure Communication: Quantum Cryptography With a Photon Turnstile,” Nature, Vol. 420, London, December 2002, p. 762.
[30] E. Moreau et al., “Single-mode Solid-state Single Photon Source Based on Isolated Quantum Dots in Pillar Microcavities,” Applied Physcis Letter, Vol. 79, No. 18, October 2001, pp. 2865-2867.
[31] H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, and N. Gisin, “Incoherent and Coherent Eavesdropping in the 6-state Protocol of Quantum Cryptography,” Physical Review A, Vol. 59, No. 6, 1998, pp. 1-11.
[32] A. Ekert, “Quantum Cryptography Based on Bell's Theorem,” Physical Review Letter, Vol. 67, 1991, pp. 661-663.
[33] R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan and C. G. Peterson, “Practical Quantum Key Distribution Over a 48-km Optical Fiber Network,” Physics Division Los Alamos National Liberatory. NM 87545.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.