Physico-Chemical and Bacterial Characteristics of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality in the Lagbe Town: Treatment Essays with Moringa oleifera Seeds


The river water and groundwater from Lagbe town in Benin Republic were collected and analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The surface water samples were treated with alum, Moringa oleifera seeds powder and the combination of alum and Moringa oleifera seeds. The jar-test essays were carried out with two water samples at initial turbidities 7.2 NTU and 14.4 NTU. The water samples analyzed are fairly mineralized (conductivity varies between 166 and 687 μS/cm), enough soft and contain the nitrate (104 mg/L for W4 sample). They are greatly polluted by pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Serratia. The optimal dosages of Moringa are 96 mg/L and 80 mg/L respectively. We have observed a reduction of 60% of turbidity and a substantial remove of all pathogenic microorganisms after water treatment with Moringa oleifera seeds. For the combination treatment, 93% of initial turbidity and 92% of initial concentration of organic matter in the sample E2 were eliminated. The pH remained almost constant during the treatment.

Share and Cite:

K. Fatombi, T. Ahoyo, O. Nonfodji and T. Aminou, "Physico-Chemical and Bacterial Characteristics of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality in the Lagbe Town: Treatment Essays with Moringa oleifera Seeds," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2012, pp. 1001-1008. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.412116.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] I. M. Adekunle, M. T. Adetunji, A. M. Gbadebo and O. B. Banjoko, “Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2007, pp. 307-318. doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040007
[2] D. P. Gupta, Sunita and J. P. Saharan, “Physiochemical Analysis of Groundwater of Selected Area of Kaithal City (Haryana), India,” Researcher, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2009, pp. 1-5.
[3] P. T. S. Dhiviyaa, R. T. Venkatesa, L. Punithavathi, S. Karunanithi and A. Bhaskaran, “Groundwater Pollution in the Palar Riverbed near Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2011, pp. 19-21.
[4] WHO, “International Standards of Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004, pp. 55-79.
[5] J. Samia, “Using Moringa oleifera Seeds as Coagulant in Developing Countries,” Journal of the American Water Works Association, Vol. 80, No. 6, 1988, pp. 43-50.
[6] N. A. Eman, A. Suleyman, H. M. Muyibi, Salleh, A. M. Zahangir and R. M. Mohd, “Production of Natural Coagulant from Moringa oleifera Seed for Application in Treatment of Low Turbidity Water,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2, 2010, pp. 259-266. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2010.23030
[7] G. Folkard and J. Sutherland, “Development of a Naturally Derived Coagulant for Water and Wastewater Treatment,” Water Supply, Vol. 2, No. 5-6, 2002, pp. 89- 94.
[8] K. Ghebremichael, K. R. Gunaratna, H. Henriksson, H. Brumer and G. Dalhammar, “A Simple Purification and Activity Assay of the Coagulant Protein from Moringa oleifera Seeds,” Water Research, Vol. 39, 2005, pp. 2338-2344. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2005.04.012
[9] A. Ndabigengesere and K. S. Narasiah, “Quality of Water Treated by Coagulation Using Moringa oleifera Seeds,” Water Research, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1998, pp. 781-791. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(97)00295-9
[10] M. Suarez, J. M. Entenza, C. Doerries, E. Meyer, L. Bourquin, J. Sutherland, I. Marison, P. Moreillon and N. Mermod, “Expression of a Plant-Derived Peptide Harboring Water-Cleaning and Antimicrobial Activities,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 81, No. 1, 2003, pp. 13-20. doi:10.1002/bit.10550
[11] AFNOR, “Qualité de l’eau: Terminologie, Echantillonnage et Evaluation de Méthodes,” 2nd Edition, Tome 1, Paris, 1997.
[12] S. H. Lee, S. Lee, K. L. Jang and T. H. Lee, “Microbial Flocculant from Arcuadendron SP-49,” Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1995, pp. 95-105. doi:10.1007/BF00134203
[13] T. A. Ahoyo, K. J. Fatombi, M. Boco, T. Aminou and K. L. Dramane, “Impact de la Qualité de l’eau et de l’Assainissement sur la Santé des Enfants en Milieu Périurbain au Bénin: Cas des Zones Sanitaires Savalou-Banté et Dassa-Glazoué,” Médecine Tropicale, Vol. 71, No. 3, 2011, pp. 1-5.
[14] N. Ravisankar and S. Poogothai, “A Study of Ground Water Quality in Tsunami Affected Areas of Sirkazhi Taluk, Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India,” Scientific of Tsunami Hazards, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2008, pp. 47-55.
[15] J.-Y. Lee and S.-H. Song, “Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Coastal Areas: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 52, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1231-1242. doi:10.1007/s00254-006-0560-2
[16] R. J. Davies-Colley, J. W. Nagels, A. M. Donnison and R. W. Muirhead, “Faecal Contamination of Rural Streams-Implications for Water Quality Monitoring and Riparian Management,” 43th Annual Conference of the Water and Wastes Association, Wellington, 19-21 September 2001.
[17] S. C. Edberg, E. W. Rice, R. J. Karlin and M. J. Allen, “Escherichia coli: The Best Biological Drinking Water Indicator for Public Health Protection,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 88, 2000, pp. S106-S116. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2000.tb05338.x
[18] M. Pritchard, T. Mkandawire and J. G. O’Neill, “Biological, Chemical and Physical Drinking Water Quality from Shallow Wells in Malawi: Case Study of Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Vol. 32, No. 15-18, 2007, pp. 1167- 1177. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2007.07.013
[19] M. L. Bawa, G. Djanéyé-Boundjou, A. G. Soulémane and I. Kpékpassi, “Etude de la Clarification d’une Eau de Surface par une Substance Naturelle (les Extraits Aqueux de Moringa oleifera Lam): Influence sur la Demande en Chlore,”Physical and Chemical News, Vol. 42, 2008, pp. 133-138.
[20] H. Beltran, J. Sanchez-Martin and K. Ghebremichael, “Comparison of Single-Step and Two-Step Purified Coagulants from Moringa oleifera Seed for Turbidity and DOC Removal,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, 2010, pp. 6259-6261. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.072
[21] S. M. Grasiele, B. S. Geovanna, M. S. V. Angelica, N. Leticia, C. C. Karina and B. Rosangela, “Study of Saline Solution on the Extraction of the Moringa oleifera Seed’s Active Component for Water Treatment,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, Vol. 211, 2010, pp. 409-415. doi:10.1007/s11270-009-0309-0
[22] R. F. Muhammad, W. Nor, P. P. Chan and H. Nasrul, “Mechanism of Turbidity and Hardness Removal in Hard Water Sources by Using Moringa oleifera,” Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 16, 2011, pp. 2947-2963. doi:10.3923/jas.2011.2947.2953
[23] W. Atieno, S. Wagai, P. Arama and J. Ogur, “Antibacte- rial Activity of Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala Methanol and n-Hexane Seed Extracts on Bacteria Implicated in Water Borne Diseases,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2011, pp. 153-157.
[24] J. Raheela, S. Muhammad, J. Amer and A. Muhammad, “Microscopic Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Extracts of Moringa oleifera,” Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2008, pp. 1349-1358.
[25] M. Pritchard, T. Craven, T. Mkandawire, A. S. Edmondson and J. G. O’Neill, “A Comparison between Moringa oleifera and Chemical Coagulants in the Purification of Drinking Water—An Alternative Sustainable Solution for Developing Countries,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. 35, No. 13-14, 2010, pp. 798-805. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2010.07.014

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.