Cognitive Radio Ad-Hoc Networks: Some New Results on Multi-Channel Hidden Terminal Problem


Recently the Cognitive Radio (CR), in particular the CR Ad-Hoc Network (CRAHN) technology appears as a burgeoning area in wireless communication that enables utilization of limited network resources in more efficient and intelligent way; studies indicate that opportunistic utilization of the available radio frequency spectrum, without interfering the licensed primary user (PU) could be made. This paper presents some simulation based performance of the Multi-Channel Hidden Terminal (MCHT) problem on CRAHNs; new observations on the effect of the number of channels on certain PU-activity metrics, e.g., delay and throughput, are described.

Share and Cite:

P. Venkateswaran, S. Shaw, S. Pattanayak and R. Nandi, "Cognitive Radio Ad-Hoc Networks: Some New Results on Multi-Channel Hidden Terminal Problem," Communications and Network, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2012, pp. 342-348. doi: 10.4236/cn.2012.44039.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. Mitola and G. Q. Maguire, “Cognitive Radio: Making Software Radios More Personal,” IEEE Personal Communications, 1999, pp. 13-18. doi:10.1109/98.788210
[2] S. Haykin, “Cognitive Radio: Brain-Empowered Wireless Communication,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 23, 2005, pp. 201-220. doi:10.1109/JSAC.2004.839380
[3] D. Saha and V. Sridhar, “Emerging Areas of Research in Business Data Communication,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2011, pp. 52-59.
[4] P. Venkateswaran, “Studies on a Class of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) with Efficient Routing, Mobility/ Interface Modeling & Improved Clustering Schemes,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 2011.
[5] K. Pretz, “Overcoming Spectrum Scarcity,” IEEE Spectrum Newsletter: The Institute Tech Focus, 28 August 2012.
[6] A. Georgakopoulos, K. Tsagkaris, D. Karvounas, P. Vlacheas and P. Demestichas, “Cognitive Radios for Future Internets: Status and Emerging Challenges,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2012, pp. 48-56. doi:10.1109/MVT.2012.2204548
[7] F. Tobagi and L. Kleinrock, “Packet Switching in Radio Channels(II)—The Hidden Terminal Problem in Carrier Sense Multiple-Access and Busy-Tone Solution,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 23, No. 12, 1975, pp. 1417-1433. doi:10.1109/TCOM.1975.1092767
[8] J. So and N. H. Vaidya, “Multi-Channel MAC for Ad Hoc Networks: Handling Multi-Channel Hidden Terminals Using a Single Transceiver,” Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, Tokyo, 24-26 May 2004, pp. 222-233.
[9] I. F. Akyildiz, W. Y. Lee and K. Chowdhury, “CRAHNs: Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks,” Ad Hoc Networks (Elsevier) Journal, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2009, pp. 810-836.
[10] K. K. Szott, “A Survey of MAC Layer Solutions to Hdden Node Problem in Ad-Hoc Networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2012, pp. 635-660. doi:10.1016/j.adhoc.2011.10.003
[11] M. D. Felice, K. R. Chowdhury and L. Bononi, “Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Transmission Control Protocol Over Cognitive Radio Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, Spain, 26-30 October 2009, pp. 4-12.
[12] L. Ma, X. Han and C. C. Shen, “Dynamic Open Spectrum Sharing MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks,” 2005 First IEEE International Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, Baltimore, 8-11 November 2005, pp. 203-213.
[13] K. Xu, M. Gerla and S. Bae, “How Effective Is IEEE 802.11 RTS/CTS Handshake in Ad-Hoc Networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2003, pp. 72-76.
[14] S.-L. Wu, C.-Y. Lin, Y. C. Tseng and J. P. Sheu, “A New Multi-Channel MAC Protocol with On-Demand Channel Assignment for Multi-Hop Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms and Networks (I-SPAN), Dallas, 7-9 December 2000, pp. 232-237.
[15] J. Jia, Q. Zhangh and X. Shen, “HC-MAC: Hardware Constrained Cognitive MAC for Efficient Spectrum Management,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2008, pp. 106-117.
[16] C. Cordeiro and K. Challapali, “C-MAC: A Cognitive MAC Protocol for Multichannel Wireless Networks,” Proceedings of IEEE Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySpan), Ireland, 17-20 April 2007, pp. 147-157.
[17] Y. R. Kondareddy and P. Agarwal, “Synchronisation of MAC Protocol for Multi-Hop Cognitive Radio Network,” IEEE International Conference on Communications, Beijing, 19-23 May 2008, pp. 3198-3202.
[18] H. Su and X. Zhang, “Cross Layer Based Opportunistic MAC Protocols for QoS Provisioning Over Cognitive Radio Wireless Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2008, pp. 118-129. doi:10.1109/JSAC.2008.080111
[19] T. Luo, M. Motani and V. Srinivasan, “Cooperative Asynchronous Mul-Tichannel MAC: Design, Analysis, and Implementation,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2009, pp. 338-352. doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.109
[20] P. C. Ng and S. C. Liew, “Throughput Analysis of IEEE802.11 Multi-Hop Ad-Hoc Networks,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2007, pp. 309-322.
[21] Z. H. Velkov and L. Gavrilovska, “Performance of IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs under Influence of Hidden Terminals and Pareto Distributed Packet Traffic,” 1999 IEEE International Conference on Personal Wireless Communication, Jaipur, 17-19 February 1999, pp. 221-225.
[22] J. Li, C. Blake, D. Couto, H. I. Lee and R. Morris, “Capacity of Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proceedings of 7th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, ACM MobiCom, Rome, 16-21 July 2001, pp. 61-69.
[23] R. Tandra and A. Sahai, “SNR Walls for Signal Detection,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2008, pp. 4-17. doi:10.1109/JSTSP.2007.914879
[24] Y. Zeng and Y.-C. Liang, “Spectrum Sensing Algorithms for Cognitive Radio Based on Statistical Covariance,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 58, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1804-1815. doi:10.1109/TVT.2008.2005267
[25] S. Pattanayak, P. Venkateswaran and R. Nandi, “Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio,” Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Wireless Communication Networking and Mobile Computing, Shanghai, 21-23 September 2012. doi:978-1-61284-683-5/12
[26] J. Mitola, A. Attar, H. O. Harada and H. Aghvami, “Achievements and the Road Ahead: The First Decade of Cognitive Radio,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 59, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1574-1577.
[27] J, Perez-Romero, L. Doyle and M. C. Vuran, “Applications of Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2012, pp. 23-24. doi:10.1109/MVT.2012.2190226
[28] IEEE 802.11 and 802.11—A Working Group, “Wireless LAN Medium Access Control and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: High-Speed Physical Layer in 5 GHz Band,” 1999.
[29] D. Vassis and G. Kormentzas, “Throughput Analysis for IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks under the Hidden Terminal Problem,” 3rd IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, Las Vegas, 8-10 January 2006, pp. 1273-1276.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.