Swine waste as a source of natural products: A carotenoid antioxidant
Lawrence B. Cahoon, Christopher J. Halkides, Bongkeun Song, C. Michael Williams, George R. Dubay, Alexandra Fries, Johanna Farmer, William Fridrich, Charles Brookshire
1918 Princess Street, Wilmington, USA.
209 Stonewall Jackson Dr., Wilmington, USA.
Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center, N.C. State University, Raleigh, USA.
Center for Marine Science, UNC Wilmington, Wilmington, USA.
Department of Biology and Marine Biology, UNC Wilmington, Wilmington, USA.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UNC Wilmington, Wilmington, USA.
Department of Chemistry, French Family Science Center, Duke University, Durham, USA.
Ecotoxicology Lab, BLD 218, Department of Biology, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, USA.
Integration and Application Network, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge, USA.
DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.36098   PDF    HTML     4,484 Downloads   7,358 Views   Citations


Development of Environmentally Superior Technologies swine waste management has focused on extraction of products with relatively low unit values. Analyses of the bacterial composition of swine waste lagoon samples confirmed the presence of several purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) species known to produce a variety of carotenoids. We examined a carotenoid naturally abundant in North Carolina swine waste lagoons dominated by PNSB. Analytical methods including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed the identity of the dominant carotenoid as spirilloxanthin, C42H60O2, with 13 conjugated double bonds. This structure confers antioxidant properties as good as those of carotenoids currently marketed as antioxidants. Visual estimates of the “redness” of swine waste lagoon liquids were highly correlated with carotenoid content. Spirilloxanthin concentrations in a lagoon with a strong PNSB bloom were approximately 0.5 grams·m-3. These results support further investigations into the potential for extracting commercially valuable natural products from swine waste lagoons.

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Cahoon, L. , Halkides, C. , Song, B. , Williams, C. , Dubay, G. , Fries, A. , Farmer, J. , Fridrich, W. and Brookshire, C. (2012) Swine waste as a source of natural products: A carotenoid antioxidant. Agricultural Sciences, 3, 806-815. doi: 10.4236/as.2012.36098.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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