Seasonal Mood and Behavioral Changes for Japanese Residents in the United Kingdom


The aim of this study was to investigate seasonal changes in mood and behavior for Japanese residents in UK A questionnaire survey was conducted with Japanese residents in the UK (n = 100) who participated both a combination winter and summer research. First, a longitudinal study comparing two surveys—one in summer and another in winter—was carried out to determine how the level of seasonal changes influenced depression among Japanese living in the UK. Then, we examined seasonal changes in mood and behavior over a 12-month period based on the degree of seasonal dependence. Paired t-tests on Global Seasonality Score (GSS score) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores by winter and summer demonstrated that each score had a significant seasonal difference; individual scores were higher in winter than in summer. We examined the difference between high seasonality group, medium seasonal group, and non-seasonal group, regarding to the winter CES-D and summer CES-D scores. The ANOVA revealed a significant difference on the winter score (Winter: F(2,97) = 4.62, p < .01, Summer: F(2,97) = 3.24, p < .05). Although we did not find any interaction between seasonal change and season, the main effect was significant for season. The results showed fluctuations in which mood, social activity, and sleep all declined during the winter and then improved during the summer. It indicated that depressive symptoms among Japanese living in the UK fluctuate due to seasonality; over a period of 12 months, their mood and behavior declined during winter and improved during summer. As described, Japanese living in the UK experience environmental changes due to seasonality. This suggests that the environmental factor called seasonal change can partly explain why Japanese living in the UK suffer from mental and physical disorders. Mental health measures specific to the local environment are necessary to support individuals to adapt to and live under an environment different from home country.

Share and Cite:

Kurata, Y. & Nomura, S. (2012). Seasonal Mood and Behavioral Changes for Japanese Residents in the United Kingdom. Psychology, 3, 848-855. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.329128.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Haggag, A., Eklund, B., Linaker, O., & Gotestam K. G. (1990). Seasonal mood variation: An epidemiological study in northern Norway. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 81, 141-145. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1990.tb06467.x
[2] Kamo, T., Kamo, K., Nakadaira, S., & Sakamoto, K. (1993). A Investigation of seasonality in mood and behavior in normal subjects using the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire. Japanese Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 837-840.
[3] Kasper, S., Wehr, T. A., Bartko, J. J., & Rosenthal, N. E. (1989). Epidemiological findings of seasonal changes in mood and behavior: A telephone survey of Montgomery Country, Maryland. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 823-833. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810090065010
[4] Magnusson, A., & Stefansson, J. G. (1993). Prevalence of seasonal af- fective disorder in Iceland. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 941- 946. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820240025002
[5] Magnusson, A., & Axelsson, J. (1993). The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder is low among descendants of Icelandic emigrants in Canada. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 947-951. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820240031004
[6] Michalak, E. E., Wilkinson, C., Dowrick, C., & Wilkinson, G. (2001). Seasonal affective disorder: Prevalence, detection and current treatment in North Wales. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 31-34. doi:10.1192/bjp.179.1.31
[7] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (2010). Annual report of statistics on Japanese nationals overseas. Tokyo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.
[8] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (2010). Kaigai houjin yougo toukei. Tokyo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.
[9] Murase, S., Murase, S., Kitabatake, M., Yamauchi, T., & Mathé, A. A. (1995). Seasonal mood variation among Japanese residents of Stockholm. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 92, 51-55. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1995.tb09542.x
[10] Ozaki, N., Ono, Y., Ito, A., & Rosenthal, N. E. (1995). Prevalence of seasonal difficulties in mood and behavior among Japanese civil ser- vants. Journal of the American Psychiatric Association, 152, 1225- 1227
[11] Rosen, L. N., Targum, S. D., Terman, M., Bryant, M. J., Hofman, H., Kasper, S. F., Hamovit, J. R., Decherty, J. P., Welch, B, & Rosenthal, N. E. (1990). Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder at four latitudes. Psychiatry Research, 31, 131-144. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(90)90116-M
[12] Rosenthal, N. E., Sack, D. A., Gillin, J. C., Lewy, A. J., Goodwin, F. K., Davenport, Y., Mueller, P. S., Newsome, D. A., & Wehr, T. A. (1984). Seasonal affective disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 41, 72- 80. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1984.01790120076010
[13] Rosenthal, N. E., & Wehr, T. A. (1987). Seasonal affective disorders. Psychiatric Annals, 17, 670-674.
[14] Sakamoto, K., Kamo, T., Nakadaira, S., Tamura, A., & Takahashi, K. (1993). A nationwide survey of seasonal affective disorder at 53 outpatient university clinics in Japan. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87, 258-265. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1993.tb03368.x
[15] Shima, S., Shikano, T, Kitamura, T., & Asai, M. (1985). Seishinigaku. New Self-Rating Scales for Depression, 27, 717-723.
[16] Shirakawa, S., Okawa, M., Uchiyama, M., Oguri, M., Kosaka, M., Mishima, K., Inoue, H., & Kamei, K. (1993). Seasonality in the mood and behaviors of a normal population sample in Japan. Journal of Mental Health, 39, 81-93.
[17] Suhail, K. & Cochrane, R. (1997). Seasonal changes in affective state in samples of Asian and white women. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 32, 149-157
[18] Suhail, K. & Cochrane, R. (1998). Seasonakl variation in hospital admissions for affective disorders by gender and ethnicity. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, 211-217. doi:10.1007/s001270050045

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.