Renal Responses to a Series of Handball Games Played in Sub-Saharan Environment by Amateur Division 1 of Female Players
Brigitte Affidehome Tonon, Bruno Agboton, Jean-Marie Falola, Polycarpe Gouthon, Issiako Bio Nigan, Edgard-Marius Ouendo, Hippolyte Agboton, Jacques-Remy Poortmans
Department of Nephrology, National Hospital of Cotonou and Faculty of Health Science, University of Abomey-Calavi. Cotonou, Republic of Benin.
Faculty of Motility Sciences, University of Brussels. Brussels, Republic of Belgium.
Laboratory of Physical and Sportive Activities and Motility. National Institute of Youth, Physical Education and Sport. University of Abomey-Calavi. Porto-Novo, Republic of Benin.
Regional Institute of Public Health/WHO, University of Abomey-Calavi. Ouidah, Republic of Benin.
Unity of Formation and Research in Cardiology, Faculty of Health Science, University of Abomey-Calavi. Cotonou, Republic of Benin.
DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.23019   PDF    HTML     4,774 Downloads   8,382 Views   Citations


This study aims at assessing the modifications of renal parameters with 13 female players of the same Benin team-amateur Division 1, during two consecutive handball games played 26 hours apart. The players are divided into two groups: starters (ST: N = 7) and nonstarters (NS: N = 6). The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with Cockcroft-Gault and MDRD formulae, the fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), the plasma haemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) were assayed at rest and at the end of each game. At the end of the first game, only eGFR decreased significantly by at least 16.30% (p < 0.05) in ST only. At the end of the second game, the average reductions of eGFR are significant in both the ST and NS groups (p < 0.05), but they are less important than those recorded at the end of the first (p > 0.05). FeNa varied in no group, neither after the first game, nor after the second (p > 0.05). But a cumulative reduction is observed between the values before the first and those recorded at the end of the second game in both ST and NS groups. The status of the players (ST or NS) did not influence the results. Two games of handball played 26 hours apart in the sub-Saharan environment of Cotonou caused in girls, a transitory decrease in eGFR without a cumulative effect. FeNa decreased too, but with a cumulative effect which indicates large sodium retention.

Share and Cite:

Tonon, B. , Agboton, B. , Falola, J. , Gouthon, P. , Nigan, I. , Ouendo, E. , Agboton, H. & Poortmans, J. (2012). Renal Responses to a Series of Handball Games Played in Sub-Saharan Environment by Amateur Division 1 of Female Players. Advances in Physical Education, 2, 103-109. doi: 10.4236/ape.2012.23019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Adéwoye, H. O., & Fawibe, J. F. (1978). Serum albumin level in an urban Nigerian population. British Journal of Nutrition, 40, 439-442. doi:10.1079/BJN19780145
[2] Afshar, R., Sanavi, S., & Jalali Nadooshan, M. R. (2009). Urinary sodium and potassium excretion following karate competitions. Iran Journal of Kidney Disease, 3, 86-88.
[3] American College of Sports Medicine (1996). Position stand on exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 1-7.
[4] “Bénin” Encyclopédie Microsoft? Encarta? (2008). URL (Last checked 10 January 2010).
[5] Bigot, A., Akpona, S., Attolou, V., Avodé, G., Djrolo, F., Houngbè, F., Fatoke, M., & Zohoun, I. (1996). Valeurs de référence de 11 protéines sériques dans une population apparemment en bonne santé. Journal de la Société de Biologie Clinique (Bénin), 3, 45-48.
[6] Brooks, G. A., & Mercier, J. (1994). Balance of carbohydrate and lipid utilization during exercise: The ‘‘crossover’’ concept. Journal of Applied Physiology, 76, 2253-2261.
[7] Buchheit, M. (2005). Connaissances adultes. Le 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test: Illustration de la programmation du travail de la puissance maximale aérobie à partir d’un test de terrain approprié. Approches du Handball, 88, 36-46.
[8] Burtis, C. A., Ashwood, E. R., & Bruns, D. E. (2005). Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics (4th ed.), Paris: Elsevier Saunders.
[9] Carvounis, C. P., Nisar, S., & Guro-Razuman, S. (2002). Significance of the fractional excretion of urea in the differential diagnosis of acute renal failure. Kidney International, 62, 2223-2229. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2002.00683.x
[10] Casa, D. J., Armstrong, L. E., Hillman, S. A., Montain, S. J., Reiff, R. V., Rich, B. S. E., Roberts, W. O., & Stone, J. A. (2000). National athletic trainers’ association position statement: Fluid replacement for athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 35, 212-224.
[11] Cockcroft, D. W., & Gault, H. M. (1976). Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron, 16, 31-41. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2002.00683.x
[12] Dill, D. B., & Costill, D. L. (1974). Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology, 37, 247-248.
[13] Di Santolo, M., Stel, G., Banfi, G., Gonano, F., & Cauci, S. (2008). Anemia and iron status in young fertile non-professional female athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 102, 703-709. doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0647-9
[14] International Handball Federation (IHF) (2010). International Handball Federation Rules. Basel: IHF.
[15] Fesler, P., & Mimran, A. (2007). Ionogramme urinaire de 24 heures: Comment l’interpréter? Journal de Néphrologie-Cardiologie, 18.
[16] Gerth, J., Ott, U., Fünfstück, R., Bartsch, R., Keil, E., Schubert, K., Hübscher, J., Scheucht, S., & Stein, G. (2002). The effect of prolonged physical exercise on renal function, electrolyte balance and muscle cell breakdown. Clinical Nephrology, 57, 425-431.
[17] Gnionsahe, D. A., Lagou, D. A., & Tia, W. M. (2007). Prevalence of acquired cystic disease in Black Africans on hemodialysis in West Africa. Saudian Journal of Kidney Disease and Transplantation, 18, 114-116.
[18] Goffin, E., & Nielsens, H. (2006). Peut-on pratiquer un sport lorsqu’on est insuffisant rénal chronique, dialysé ou transplanté? AIRGFrance: Information Medicale 2006. URL (Last checked 1 July 2009).
[19] Gouthon, P., Tonon, B. A., Ouendo, E.-M., Falola, J.-M., Agboton, B., Dansou, H. P. & Poortmans, J. R. (2009). Evolution des paramètres associés à la fonction rénale après un match de basketball en milieu africain subsaharien. Science & Sports, 24, 293-301. doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2009.03.004
[20] Irving, R. A., Noakes, T. D., & van Zyl-Smit, R. (1989). Metabolic and renal changes in two athletes during a world 24 hours relay record performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23, 227-232. doi:10.1136/bjsm.23.4.227
[21] Jaffé, N. (1886). Ueber den neiderschlag, welchen pikrinsaeure in normalen harn erzeugt un über eine neue reaktion des kretinins. Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie, 10, 391-400.
[22] Janssens, G. (2009). Répertoire d’analyses de biologie clinique [on line]. 3rd Edition, Brussels. URL (Last checked 22 December 2010).
[23] Koulmann, N., Banzet, S., & Bigard, A. X. (2003). L’activité physique à la chaleur: De la physiologie aux recommandations d’apport hydrique. Medecine Tropicale, 63, 617-626.
[24] Levey A. S, Coresh J., Greene T., Stevens L. A., Zhang Y. L., Hendriksen S., Kusek, J. W., & Van Lente, F. (2006). Chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration. Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. Annals of Internal Medicine, 145, 247-254.
[25] Lippi, G., Schena, F., Salvagno, G. L., Tarperi, C., Montagnana, M., Gelati, M., Banfi, G., & Guidi, G. C. (2008a). Acute variation of estimated glomerular filtration rate following a half-marathon run. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 948-951.
[26] Lippi, G., Banfi, G., Salvagno, G. L., Franchini, M., & Guidi, G. C. (2008b). Glomerular filtration rate in endurance athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 18, 286-288. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e31817049c5
[27] Naicker, S. (2009). End-stage renal disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnicity Disease, 19, 13-15.
[28] Nussenblatt, V., & Semba, R. D. (2002). Micronutrient, malnutrition and the pathogenesis of malarial anemia. Acta Tropica, 82, 321-337. doi:10.1016/S0001-706X(02)00049-9
[29] Pinnell, A. E., & Northam, B. E. (1978). New automated dye-binding method for serum albumin determination with bromocresol purple. Clinical Chemistry, 24, 808-806.
[30] Pitkin, R. M., Reynolds, W. A., Williams, G. A., & Hargis, G. K. (1978). Calcium regulating hormones during the menstrual cycle. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 47, 626-632. doi:10.1210/jcem-47-3-626
[31] Poortmans, J.-R., & Ouchinsky, M. (2006). Glomerular filtration rate and albumin excretion after maximal exercise in aging sedentary and active men. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61, 1181-1185. doi:10.1093/gerona/61.11.1181
[32] Poortmans, J.-R. (1995). La réponse rénale à l’exercice chez le sujet sain et pathologique. Nephrology, 16, 317-324.
[33] Poortmans, J.-R., Jourdain, M., Heyters, C., & Reardon, F. D. (1990). Postexercise proteinuria in rowers. Canadian Journal of Sport Science, 15, 126-130.
[34] Schumacher, Y. O., Pottgiesser, T., Ahlgrim, C., Ruthardt, S., Dickhuth, H.-H., & Roecker, K. (2008). Haemoglobin mass in cyclists during stage racing. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 372-378. doi:10.1093/gerona/61.11.1181
[35] Sims, S. T., Rehrer, N. J., Bell, M. L., & Cotter, J. D. (2007). Preexercise sodium loading aids fluid balance and endurance for women exercising in the heat. Journal of Applied Physiology, 103, 534-541. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01203.2006
[36] Szmuilowicz, E. D., Adler, G. K., Williams, J. S., Green, D. E., Yao, T. M., Hopkins, P. N., & Seely, E. W. (2006). Rlationship between aldosterone and progesterone in the human menstrual cycle. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 91, 3981-3987. doi:10.1210/jc.2006-1154
[37] Yeargin, S. W., Casa, D. J., Judelson, D. A., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S., Lee E. C, Lopez, R. M., Stearns, R. L., Anderson, J. M., Armstrong, L. E., Kraemer, W. J., & Maresh, C. M. (2010). Thermoregulatory responses and hydration practices in heat-acclimatized adolescents during preseason high school football. Journal of Athletic Training, 45, 136-146. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-45.2.136

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.