Is There an Instructional Framework for 21st Century Learning?


The current schooling system is great in leveling up students’ literacy but it does not develop flexible understandings of concepts. We recognize that traditional instructional science model at best develop students’ attitudes, skills, and knowledge (A-S-K). We propose an instructional framework for developing dispositions, attitudes, skills, and knowledge (D-A-S-K) that embraces five zones of learning: 1) zone of instruction, 2) zone of practice, 3) zone of interaction, 4) zone of tinkering, and 5) zone of meta-cognition. The proposed framework stresses that flexible learning is about the interplay between tacit and explicit knowledge. 21st century learning is about dialectical interactions between theory and practice, individuals and communities, formal and informal learning, learners and meta-cognitive brokers. The paper focuses on conceptually constructing an instructional framework for 21st century learning. We are not suggesting that our proposed framework is the only possible instructional model for the 21st century. Rather, we hope that our proposed framework invokes further discussions to examine other models for 21st century teaching and learning. Future work is needed to implement and examine the proposed framework for practical implications.

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Lee, S. & Hung, D. (2012). Is There an Instructional Framework for 21st Century Learning?. Creative Education, 3, 461-470. doi: 10.4236/ce.2012.34071.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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