Effect of Fly Ash Content on Friction and Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites - A Taguchi Approach


The tribological behavior of glass fiber reinforced vinylester composites filled with fly ash particulates were studied using a pin-on-disc wear apparatus under dry sliding conditions. The influence of friction and wear parameters like (pv) factor, sliding distance and percentage of filler content, on the friction and sliding wear rate were investigated. A plan of experiments, based on the Taguchi technique, was performed to acquire data in a controlled way. An orthogonal array and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied to investigate the influence of process parameters on the coefficient of friction and sliding wear behaviour of these composites. The Taguchi design of experiment approach eliminates the need for repeated experiments and thus saves time, material and cost. Taguchi approach identifies not only the significant control factors but also their interactions influencing the coefficient of friction and specific wear rate predominantly. The results showed that the inclusion of fly ash as filler materials in glass vinylester composites decreases the coefficient of friction and increases the wear resistance of the glass vinylester composites significantly.

Share and Cite:

S. Chauhan, A. Kumar, I. Singh and P. Kumar, "Effect of Fly Ash Content on Friction and Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites - A Taguchi Approach," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 9 No. 4, 2010, pp. 365-387. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2010.94027.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Pihtili H., Tosun N., 2002, “ Investigation of the wear behavior of a glass fibre-reinforced composite and plain polyester resin”J. Comp Sci Tech, Vol. 62 (3) pp. 367–370.
[2] Amar Patnaik, Mahapatra S.S., 2009, “ Study on mechanical and erosion wear behavior of hybrid composites using Taguchi experimental design” J. Materials and Design, Vol.30, pp. 2791-2801.
[3] Chauhan S., Kumar A., Patnaik A., Satapathy A., Singh I., 2009, “ Mechanical and wear characterization of GF Reinforced vinylester resin composites with different comonomers” J. Reinf. Plast. Compos.,Vol. 28, pp. 2675-2684.
[4] Schwartz M.M., 1984, Composite Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.
[5] Suresha B., Chandramohan G., Siddaramaiah,P.,Sampathkumaran,Seetharamu S., 2007, “Mechanical and three body abrasive wear behavior of 3-D glass fabric reinforced vinylester composites” J. Mater. Sci. Eng (A),Vol. 443, pp. 285–291.
[6] Piggot, M. R., 1980, Load-Bearing Fibre Composite, Pergamon Press, Oxford.
[7] Kukureka, S.N., Hooke, C. J., Rao, M., Liao, P., Chen, Y. K., 1999, “The effect of fibrereinforcement on the friction and wear af polyamide 66 under dry rolling–sliding contact” Tribol. Int., Vol. 32, pp. 107–116.
[8] Kishore P., et al, 2000, “SEM observations of the effects of velocity and load on the sliding wear characteristics of glass fabric–epoxy composites with different fillers” J.Wear, Vol. 237, pp. 20- 27.
[9] El-Tayep N.S., Gadelrap R.M.,1996, “Friction and wear properties of E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites under different sliding contact conditions” J.Wear, Vol.192,pp.112–117.
[10] Acosta J. L., Morales E., Ojeda M. C., Linares A., 1986, “ Effect of addition of sepiolite on the Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polypropylene”, Angew Makromol Chem.,Vol. 138, pp.103-110.
[11] Sawyer W. Gregory, Freudenberg Kevin D., Bhimaraj P., Schadler, Linda S., 2003, “ A study on the friction and wear behavior of PTFE filled with alumina nanoparticles” J. Wear,Vol. 254, pp. 573-580.
[12] Jung-il Kim, Phil Hyun Kang, Young Chang Nho,1998, “Positive temperature coefficient behavior of polymer composites having a high melting temperature” Appl. Poly. Sci., Vol. 69, pp. 2593-2598.
[13] Zhu K., Schmauder S., 2003, “Prediction of the failure properties of short fiber reinforced composites with metal and polymer matrix” Computational material Sci.,Vol. 28, pp.743-748.
[14] Rusu M., Sofian N etal., 2001, “ Mechanical and thermal properties of copper-powderfilled high density polyethylene composites. Polymer Testing”,Vol. 20, pp. 409-417.
[15] Serkan Tekce H., Dilek Kumlutas, 2007, “Effect of particle shape on thermal conductivity of copper reinforced polymer composites”, J. Reinf. Plast. and Comp., Vol.26 (1), pp. 113-121.
[16] Rothon.R.N.,1997, “Mineral fillers in thermoplastics: Filler Manufacture”. Adhesion,Vol. 64, pp.87-109.
[17] Rothon.R.N.,1995,“Effects of particulate fillers on flame retardant properties of composites”J. Adv. Pol. Sci.,Vol. 139 pp. 67-107.
[18] Suresha B., Chandramohan G., Prakash J.N, Balusamy V., Sankaranarayanasamy K., 2006, “The role of fillers on friction and slider wear characteristics in glass-epoxy composite system”, J. Mater. and Mater. Characterization and Engineering, Vol.5 (1), pp.87-101.
[19] Briscoe B. J., Pogosion, A. K., Tabor, D., 1974, “ The friction and wear of high Density polyethylene; the action of lead oxide and copper oxide fillers”,J. Wear, Vol. 27, pp.19-34.
[20] Tanaka, K., 1986, “Effect of various fillers on the friction and wear of PTFE-based composites”, In: Friction and Wear of Polymer composites, Volume 205, pp. 137-174, (Friedrich K editor), Elsevier, Amsterdam.
[21] Bahadur, S., Fu, Q., Gong, D., 1994, “The effect of reinforcement and the synergism between CuS and carbon fiber on the wear of nylon”. J.Wear,Vol. 178, pp. 123-130.
[22] Yamaguchi Y., 1990, “ Tribology of plastic materials”,Tribology Series,Vol.16, Elsevier, New york.
[23] Bahadur, S., Gong, D., Anderegg, J. W., 1992, “The role of copper composites as fillers in the transfer film formation and wear of Nylon”, J. Wear,Vol. 154, pp.207-223.
[24] Bahadur, S., 2000, “The development of transfer layers and their role in polymer tribology”, J.Wear,Vol. 245, pp.92-99.
[25] Kishore, Sampathkumaran, P., Seetharamu. S., Thomas, P., Janardhana, M. A., 2005, “ Study on the effect of the type and content of filler in epoxy-glass composite system on the friction and wear characteristics”, J.Wear, Vol.259, pp. 634-641.
[26] Wang, J., Gu, M., Songhao, Ge. S., 2003, “The role of the influence of MoS2 on the tribological properties of carbon fiber reinforced Nylon 1010 composites”, J. Wear,Vol. 255, pp.774-779.
[27] Basavarajappa,S., Chandramohan, G.C.,2005, “Wear studies on metal matrix composites: A Taguchi Approach”, J. Mater Sci. and Tech.,Vol. 21(6), pp.348-350.
[28] Viswanath, B., Verma, A. P., Kameswara Rao, C. V. S., 1992, “Effect of matrix content on strength and wear of woven roving glass polymeric composites”, J. Comp. Sci. Tech., Vol. 44, pp. 77-86.
[29] Mody, P.B., Chou, T.W., Friedrich,K.,1988, “Effect of testing conditions and microstructure on the sliding wear of graphite fiber/PEEK matrix composites”, J. Mater. Sci.,Vol. 23, pp.4319-4330.
[30] Chauhan S.R., Kumar Anoop , Singh I., 2009, “Study on the friction and sliding wear behaviour of woven S-glass fiber reinforced vinylester composite manufactured with different comonomers”, J. Mater. Sci., Vol. 44, pp.6338-6347.
[31] Ross, P. J., 1993, Taguchi technique for quality engineering, Mc Graw-Hill, New York, pp.1-40.
[32] Roy, K. R., 1990, A primer on Taguchi method, Van Nostrad reinhold, New York.
[33] Basavarajappa, S., Chandrmohan, G., Mahadevan, A, Mukundan, Subramanian, R., Gopalakrishan, P., 2007, “Influence of sliding speed on the dry sliding wear behavior and the subsurface deformation of hybrid metal matrix composite.” Wear, Vol. 262, pp. 1007-1012.
[34] Taguchi, G.,1993, Taguchi on robust technology development methods, ASME press, New York, pp. 1-40.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.