Alkaloids, Limonoids and Phenols from Meliaceae Species Decrease Survival and Performance of Hypsipyla Grandella Larvae


Meliaceae plants are distinguished by the attack of the shootborer Hypsipyla grandella and also for the occurrence of limonoids, alkaloids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds extracted from leaves of Meliaceae species Cedrela odorata L., Swietenia macrophylla King, Khaya senegalensis, Toona ciliata, and C. odorata grafted onto T. ciliata plants, were tested on C. odorata leaf disks to determine their effects on survival and performance of H. grandella larvae. Larval survival was assessed 2, 10 and 25 days after starting the bioassays. Leaf consumption and weight gain per larva, days to pupa and to adult stages, pupal weight and length, and moth wing appearance were assessed for larval performance. The three compunds from the four Meliaceae species and the grafted combination affected (P ≤ 0.02) larval leaf consumption, weight gain, time to pupa and to adult stages, wing development and larval survival of H. grandella. Pupa weight (P = 0.78, F = 0.72, d.f. = 18, 160) and length (P = 0.48, F = 0.98, d.f. = 18, 160) were similar regardless of the coumpound used. Limonoid reduced larval survival on the three dates of evaluation. Alkaloids decreased leaf consumption, weight gain of larvae and time needed to reach pupa and adult stages. Alkaloids from T. ciliata and phenols from C. odorata were the best coumpounds to reduce leaf consumption and weight gain. Alkaloids from the grafted plants caused 20% of H. grandella adults to form abnormal wings.

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J. Pérez-Flores, S. Eigenbrode and L. Hilje-Quiroz, "Alkaloids, Limonoids and Phenols from Meliaceae Species Decrease Survival and Performance of Hypsipyla Grandella Larvae," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2012, pp. 988-994. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.37117.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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