Modern Monitoring Intraocular Pressure Sensing Devices Based on Application Specific Integrated Circuits


Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative condition that is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for the development and progression of the disease. Methods to lower IOP remain the first line treatments for the condition. Current methods of IOP measurement do not permit temporary noninvasive monitoring 24-hour IOP on a periodic basis. Ongoing research will in time provide a means of developing a device that will enable continuous or temporary monitoring of IOP. At present a device suitable for clinical use is not yet available.This review contains a description of different devices currently in development for measuring IOP: soft contact lens, LC resonant circuits and on-chip sensing devices. All of them use application-specific integrated circuits (ASICS) to process the measured signals and send them to recording devices. Soft contact lens devices are based on an embedded strain gauge, LC circuits vary their resonance frequency depending on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and, finally, on-chip sensing devices include an integrated microelectromechanical sensor (MEMS). MEMS are capacitors whose capacity varies with IOP. These devices allow for an accurate IOP measurement (up to +/– 0.2 mm Hg) with high sampling rates (up to 1 sample/min) and storing 1 week of raw data. All of them operate in an autonomous way and even some of them are energetically independent.

Share and Cite:

D. Piso, P. Veiga-Crespo and E. Vecino, "Modern Monitoring Intraocular Pressure Sensing Devices Based on Application Specific Integrated Circuits," Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Vol. 3 No. 2A, 2012, pp. 301-309. doi: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.322037.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] H. A. Quigley and A. T. Broman, “The Number of People with Glaucoma Worldwide in 2010 and 2020,” British Journal of Ophtalmology, Vol. 90, No. 3, 2006, pp. 262- 267. doi:10.1136/bjo.2005.081224
[2] D. H. Johnson, “Trabecular Meshwork and Uveoscleral Outflow Models,” Journal of Glaucoma, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2005, pp. 308-310. doi:10.1097/01.ijg.0000169397.32674.5e
[3] T. R. Friberg, G. Sanbor and R. N. Weinreb, “Intraocular and Episcleral Venous Pressure Increase during Inverted Postura,” American Journal of Ophtalmology, Vol. 103, 1987, pp. 523-526.
[4] N. Weinreb, “Uveoscleral Outflow: The Other Outflow Pathway,” Journal of Glaucoma, Vol. 9, No. 5, 2000, pp. 343-345. doi:10.1097/00061198-200010000-00001
[5] C. Kniestedt, O. Punjabi, S. Lin and R. L. Stamper, “Tonometry through the Ages,” Survey of Ophtalmology, Vol. 53, No. 6, 2008, pp. 568-591. doi:10.1016/j.survophthal.2008.08.024
[6] S. Oesterle, P. Gerrish and P. Cong, “New Interfaces to the Body through Implantable Systems Integration,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, CA USA, February 2011. doi:10.1109/ISSCC.2011.5746203
[7] K. C. Katuri, S. Asrani and M. K. Ramasubramanian, “Intraocular Pressure Monitoring Sensors,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2008, pp. 12-19. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2007.912539
[8] M. Leonardi, P. Leuenberger, D. Bertrand, A. Bertsch and P. Renaud, “First Steps toward a Noninvasive Intraocular Pressure Monitoring with a Sensing Contact Lens,” Investigative Ophtalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 45, No. 9, 2004, pp. 3113-3117. doi:10.1167/iovs.04-0015
[9] C. Po-Jui, D.C. Rodger, S. Saati, M. S. Humayun and T. Yu-Chong, “Microfabricated Implantable Parylene-Based Wireless Passive Intraocular Pressure Sensors,” Journal of Microelectromechanic Systems, Vol. 17, 2008, pp. 1342-1351. doi:10.1109/JMEMS.2008.2004945
[10] E. Y. Chow, A. L. Chebowski and P. Irazoqui, “A Miniature-Implantable RF-Wireless Active Glaucoma Intraocular Pressure Monitor,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2010, pp. 340-349.
[11] G. Chen, H. Ghaed, R. Haque, M. Wieckowski, Y. Kim, G. Kim, D. Fick, D. Kim, M. Seok, K. Wise, D. Blaaw and D. Sylvester, “A Cubic-Milimeter Energy Autonomous Wireless Intraocular Pressure Monitor,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, February 2011. doi:10.1109/ISSCC.2011.5746332
[12] C. D. Birnbach and M. M. Leen, “Digital Palpation of Intraocular Pressure,” Ophthalmic Surgery Lasers, Vol. 29, No. 9, 1998, pp. 754-757.
[13] O. Bowman, “On Glaucomatous Affections and Their Treatment by Iridectomy,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 2, 1862, pp. 377-382. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.93.377
[14] B. A. Ellingsen and W. M. Grant, “Influence of Intraocular Pressure and Trabe-culotomy on Aqueous Outflow in Enucleated Monkey Eyes,” Investigative Ophtalmology & Visual Science, Vol. 10, 1971, p. 705.
[15] M. Blumenthal, M. Chane and I. Ashkenazi, “Direct intraopative continuos monitoring of intraocular pressure,” Ophtalmologic Surgery, Vol. 23, 1992, pp. 132-134.
[16] H. Goldmann, “Applanation Tonometry,” Transactions Second Glaucoma Conference, New York, Josiah Macy, Jr Foundation, 1957.
[17] M. M. Whitacre and R. Stein, “Sources of Error with Use of Goldmann-Type Tonometers,” Survey of Ophthalmology, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1993, pp. 1-30. doi:10.1016/0039-6257(93)90053-A
[18] H. E. Kanngieser, C. Kniestedt and Y. C. Robert, “Dynamic Contour Tonometry: Presentation of a New Tonometer,” Journal of Glaucoma, Vol. 14, No. 5, 2005, pp. 344-350.
[19] D. R. Anderson and W. M. Grant, “Re-Evaluation of the Schiotz Tonometer Calibration,” Investigative Ophtalmology & Visual Science, Vol. 9, 1970, pp. 430-446.
[20] E. Marg, “A Report on Mackay-Marg Tonometry in Optometry,” Journal of the American Optometric Association, Vol. 34, No. 12, 1963, pp. 961-965.
[21] A. Kontiola, “A New Electromechanical Method for Measuring Intraocular Pressure,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, Vol. 93, No. 3, 1997, pp. 265-276. doi:10.1007/BF02569066
[22] M. Leonardi, P. Leuen-berger, D. Bertrand, A. Bertsch and P. Renaud, “First Steps toward Noninvasive Intraocular Pressure Monitoring with a Sensing Contact Lens,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Vol. 45, No. 9, 2004, pp. 3113-3117. doi:10.1167/iovs.04-0015
[23] M. Leonardi, P. Leuenberg, D. Bertrand, A. Bertsch and P. Renaud, “A Soft Contact Lens with a MEMS Strain Gage Embedded for Intraocular Pressure Monitoring,” 12th International Conference on Solid State Sensors, Actuators and Micro-systems, Boston, 8-12 June 2003.
[24] M. Leonardi, E. Pitchon, A. Bertsch, P. Renaud and A. Mermoud, “Wireless Contact Lens Sensor for Intraocular Pressure Monitoring: Assessment on Enucleated Pig Eyes,” Acta Ophthalmologica, Vol. 87, No. 4, 2009, pp. 433-437. doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2008.01404.x
[25] R. Puers, “Capacitive Sensors: When and How to Use Them,” Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 37-38, 1993, pp. 93-105. doi:10.1016/0924-4247(93)80019-D
[26] Y. Backlund, L. Rosengren, B. Hok and B. Svedbergh, “Passive Silicon Transensor Intended for Biomedical, Remote Pressure Monitoring,” Sensor and Actuators A, Vol. 21-23, 1990, pp. 58-61. doi:10.1016/0924-4247(90)85011-R
[27] K. Van Schuylenbergh and R. Pures, “Passive Telemetry by Harmonics Detection,” Proceedings of 18th Annual International Conference, Vol. 1, Amsterdam, The Nederlands, pp. 299-300.
[28] O. Akar, T. Akin and K. Najafi, “A Wireless Batch Sealed Absolute Capacitive Pressure Sensor,” Sensors and actuators A, Vol. 95, 2001, pp. 29-38. doi:10.1016/S0924-4247(01)00753-1
[29] K. Stangel, S. Kolnsberg, D. Hammerschmidt, H. K. Trieu and W. Mokwa, “A Programmable Intraocular CMOS Pressure Sensor System Implant,” IEEE Solid State Journal, Vol. 36, No. 7, 2001, pp. 1094-1100. doi:10.1109/4.933466
[30] S. Lizon-Martinez, R. Gianetti, J. L. Rodriguez-Marrero and B. Tellini, “Design of a System for Continuous Intraocular Pressure Monitoring,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2005, pp. 1534-1540. doi:10.1109/TIM.2005.851216
[31] E. Y. Chow, S. Chakraborty, W. J. Chapbell and P. P. Irazoqui, “Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuits for Self-Contained Sub-Cubic Millimetre Biomedical Implants,” International Solid State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, 2010.
[32] C. Chouard and P. Pialoux, “Biocompatibility of Cochlear Implants,” Bulletin National Academy of Medicine, Vol. 179, 1995, pp. 549-555.
[33] D. R. Merrill, M. Bikson and J. Jefferys, “Electrical Simulation of Excitable Tissue: Design of Efficacious and Safe Protocols,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, Vol. 141, 2005, pp. 171-198. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2004.10.020

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.