Gender Inequality and Its Effects in Females Torture Survivors


The study explores the effects of gender discrimination GD as type III trauma in 359, (160 females and 199 males) torture survivors. Data includes measures of GD and other traumas, PTSD and cumulative trauma disorders CTD. GD found to decrease PTSD symptoms in males favoring mental health status of males, and increase CTD symptoms in females. GD mediated the effects of personal identity traumas on PTSD and CTD symptoms of psychosis/dissociation; executive function deficits, and suicidality. The re- sults highlight GD as type III trauma that contributes to the mental health differences between males and females.

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Kira, I. , Ashby, J. , Lewandowski, L. , Smith, I. & Odenat, L. (2012). Gender Inequality and Its Effects in Females Torture Survivors. Psychology, 3, 352-363. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.34050.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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