Three Patterns of Motion Which Change the Perception of Emotional Faces
Alhadi Chafi, Loris Schiaratura, Stéphane Rusinek
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31014   PDF    HTML     6,639 Downloads   13,100 Views   Citations


The aim of the study was to focus on the relationship between motion and emotion. Relying on studies in Behavioral Neurology and Social Psychology, it is believed motion is one of the core components of Emotion. The study uses basic emotional faces (i.e., Happy, Surprised, Fearful, Sad, Disgusted and Angry) which are presented displaying patterns of motion (i.e., a Parabolic motion, a Translational motion and a Wave-like motion). Hypotheses are that the wave-like motion will increase perceived intensities and arou- sal related to positive emotional faces (i.e., Happy and Surprised), and simplify their recognition. Otherwise, the parabolic motion is hypothesized to increase perceived intensities and arousal related to negative emotional faces (i.e., Angry, Disgusted, Fearful and Sad), while enhancing their recognition. Results sho- wed that “Happy” is the most recognized face and “Fearful” is the least recognized one. Concerning Perceived Intensity, an Emotional Face main effect and an Interaction Motion Pattern × Emotional Face were obtained. Finally, the Arousal dimension yielded two main effects, one for the Emotional Face and one for the Motion Pattern. On one hand, results we found are very promising in understanding the part played by motion in Arousal. On the other hand, further research still has to be done so as to question the exact effects of the Translational, Parabolic and Wave-like motion patterns, especially in more dynamic contexts.

Share and Cite:

Chafi, A. , Schiaratura, L. & Rusinek, S. (2012). Three Patterns of Motion Which Change the Perception of Emotional Faces. Psychology, 3, 82-89. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.31014.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Adolphs, R. (2002). Recognizing emotion from facial expressions: Psychological and neurological mechanisms. Behavioral and Cogni- tive Neuroscience Review, 1, 21-62.
[2] Alexopulos, T., & Ric, F. (2007). The Evaluation-behavior link: Direct and beyond valence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 1010-1016. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2006.10.017
[3] Ambadar, Z., Schooler, J. W., & Cohn, J. F. (2005). Deciphering the enigmatic face: The importance of facial dynamics in interpreting subtle facial expressions. Psychological Science,16, 403-410. doi:10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01548.x
[4] Barsalou, L. W. (1999). Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 577-660.
[5] Batty, M. & Taylor, M. J. (2003). Early processing of the six basic emotional expressions. Cognitive Brain Research, 17, 613-620. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(03)00174-5
[6] Beaupré, M. G., Cheung, N., & Hess, U. (2000). The Montreal set of facial displays of emotion [Slides]. Montreal, Canada: Department of Psychology, University of Quebec.
[7] Berridge, K. C. (2003). Pleasures of the brain. Brain and Cognition, 52, 106-128. doi:10.1016/S0278-2626(03)00014-9
[8] Blake, R., & Shiffrar, M. (2007). Perception of human motion. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 47-74. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190152
[9] Brouillet, T., Heurley, L., Martin, S., & Brouillet, D. (2010). The em- bodied cognition theory and the motor component of “yes” and “no” verbal responses. Acta Psychologica, 134, 310-317. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.03.003
[10] Calvo, M. G., & Lundqvist, D. (2008). Facial expressions of Emotion (KDEF): Identification under different display-duration conditions. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 109-115. doi:10.3758/BRM.40.1.109
[11] Casasanto, D., & Dijkstra, K. (2010). Motor Action and Emotional Memory. Cognition, 115, 179-185. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2009.11.002
[12] Chen, M., & Bargh, J. A. (1999). Consequences of automatic eva- luation: Immediate behavioral predispositions to approach or avoid the stimulus. Personnality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 215- 224. doi:10.1177/0146167299025002007
[13] Creem, S. H., & Proffitt, D. R. (2001). Defining the cortical visual sys- tems: “What”, “Where” and “How”. Acta Psychologica, 107, 43-68. doi:10.1016/S0001-6918(01)00021-X
[14] Crockford, D. N., Goodyear, B., Edwards, J., Quickfall, J., & el-Gue- baly, N. (2005). Cue-induced brain activity in pathological gam- blers. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 787-795. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.04.037
[15] Cutting, J. E., & Kozlowski, L. T. (1977). Recognizing friends by their walk: Gait perception without familiarity cues. Bulletin of the Psy- chonomic Society, 9, 353-356.
[16] Detenber, B. H., Simons, R. F., & Bennet, G. C. (1998). Roll’ Em: the effects of picture motion on emotional responses. Journal of Broad- casting & Electronic Media, 42, 112-126. doi:10.1080/08838159809364437
[17] Ekman, P. (1993). Facial expression and emotion. American Psy- chologist, 48, 384-392. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.48.4.384
[18] Ekman, P. (1999). Facial expressions. In Dalgleish, T., & Power, M. (Eds.). Handbook of Cognition and Emotion (pp. 301-320). New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[19] Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1976). Measuring facial movement. Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior, 1, 56-75. doi:10.1007/BF01115465
[20] Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Tomkins, S. S. (1971). Facial affect scoring technique: A first validity study. Semiotica, 3, 37-58. doi:10.1515/semi.1971.3.1.37
[21] Freina, L., Baroni, G., Borghi, A. M., & Nicoletti, R. (2009). Emo- tive-concept nouns and motor responses: Attraction or repulsion? Memory & Cognition, 37, 493-499. doi:10.3758/MC.37.4.493
[22] Goeleven, E., DeRaedt, R., Leyman, L., & Verschuere, B. (2008). The Karolinska directed emotional faces: A validation study. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 1094-1118. doi:10.1080/02699930701626582
[23] Goodale, M. A., & Milner, A. D. (1992). Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends in Neurosciences, 15, 21-26. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(92)90344-8
[24] Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1995). Emotion elicitation using films. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 87-108. doi:10.1080/02699939508408966
[25] Heider, F., & Simmel, M. (1944). An experimental study of apparent behavior. American Journal of Psychology, 57, 243-259. doi:10.2307/1416950
[26] Johansson, G. (1973). Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis. Perception and Psychophysics, 14, 202-211. doi:10.3758/BF03212378
[27] Lang, P. J. (1980). Behavioral treatment and bio-behavioral assessment. In J. B. Sidowski, J. H. Johnson, & T. A. Williams (Eds.), Technolo- gy in Mental Health Care Delivery Systems (pp. 119-167). Norwood, NY: Ablex. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1993.tb03352.x
[28] Lang, P. J., Greenwald, M. K., Bradley, M. M. & Hamm, A. O. (1993). Looking at pictures: Affective, facial, visceral and behavioral reac- tions. Psychophysiology, 30, 261-273.
[29] Lundqvist, D., Flykt, A., & ?hman, A. (1998). The karolinska di- rected emotional face (KDEF). Stockholm: Department of Neuro- sciences Karolinska Hospital.
[30] Matsumoto, D., & Ekman, P. (1988). Japanese and Caucasion Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) [Slides]. San Francisco: Intercul- tural and Emotion Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, San Francisco State University.
[31] Méary, D., Kitromilides, E., Mazens, K., Graff, C., & Gentaz, E. (2007). Four-day-old human neonates look longer at non-biological motions of a single point-of-light. Plos ONE, 2, 186. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000186
[32] Michotte, A., (1946). La perception de la causalité. Louvain: Publica- tions Universitaires de Louvain; Paris-Bruxelles: Erasme; Anvers- Gand-Amsterdam: Standaard-Boekhandel.
[33] Michotte, A., 1962. Causalité, permanence et réalité phénoménales. Louvain: Publications Universitaires de Louvain.
[34] Morris, J. S., DeGelder, B., Weiskrantz, L., & Dolan, R. J. (2001). Dif- ferential extrageniculostriate and amygdala responses to presentation of emotional faces in a cortically blind field. Brain, 124, 1241-1252. doi:10.1093/brain/124.6.1241
[35] Phaf, R. H., & Rotteveel, M. (2005). Affective modulation of recogni- tion bias. Emotion, 5, 309-318. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.5.3.309
[36] Phaf, R. H., & Rotteveel, M. (2009). Looking at the bright side: The affective monitoring of direction. Emotion, 9, 729-733. doi:10.1037/a0016308
[37] Podevin, G. (2009). Influence des Mouvements Elémentaires sur les processus cognitifs emotionnels. Thèse de Doctorat, Université de Lille Nord de France UDL3.
[38] Rimé, B., Boulanger, B., Laubin, P., Richir, M., & Stroobants, K. (1985). The perception of interpersonal emotions originated by patterns of movement. Motivation and Emotion, 9, 241-260. doi:10.1007/BF00991830
[39] Rimé, B., & Schiaratura, L. (1991). Gesture and speech. In R. S. Feldman, & B. Rimé (Eds.), Fundamentals of Nonverbal Behavior (pp. 239-281). New York: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
[40] Rothermund, K. (2003). Motivation and attention: Incongruent effects of feedback on the processing of valence. Emotion, 3, 223-238. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.3.3.223
[41] Rothermund, K., Voss, A., & Wentura, D. (2008). Counter-regulation in affective attentional biases: A basic mechanism that warrants flexibility in emotion and motivation. Emotion, 8, 34-46. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.8.1.34
[42] Rusinek, S. (2009). Désensibilisation de l'arachnophobie à l'aide d'une induction émotionnelle positive par le mouvement. 1er Congrès Fran?ais de Psychiatrie, Nice, décembre 2009.
[43] Schaefer, A., Nils, F., Sanchez, X., & Philippot, P. (2010). Assessing the effectiveness of a large database of emotion-eliciting films: A new tool for emotion researchers. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 1153- 1172. doi:10.1080/02699930903274322
[44] Simons, R. F., Detenber, B. H., Roedema, T. M., & Reiss, J. E. (1999). Emotion processing in three systems: The medium and the message. Psychophysiology, 36, 619-627. doi:10.1111/1469-8986.3650619
[45] Simons, R. F., Detenber, B. H., Reiss, J. E., & Shults, C. W. (2000). Image motion and context: A between and within subjects com- parison. Psychophysiology, 37, 706-710. doi:10.1111/1469-8986.3750706
[46] Tremoulet, P. D., & Feldman, J. (2000). Perception of animacy from the motion of a single object. Perception, 29, 943-951. doi:10.1068/p3101
[47] Troje, N. F., Westhoff, C., & Lavrov, M. (2005). Person identification from biological motion: Effects of structural and kinematic cues. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 667-675. doi:10.3758/BF03193523
[48] Troje, N. F., & Westhoff, C. (2006). The inversion effect in biological motion perception: Evidence for a “Life Detector”? Current Biology, 16, 821-824. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.03.022
[49] Wentura, D., Voss, A., & Rothermund, K. (2009). Playing TETRIS for science counter-regulatory affective processing in a motivationnally “hot” context. Acta Psychologica, 131, 171-177. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2009.05.008

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.