African Americans in the US Women’s National Basketball Association, 2006: From the NCAA to the WNBA
Amadu Jacky Kaba
DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.21013   PDF    HTML     6,035 Downloads   10,143 Views   Citations


This research study presents a social science examination of the U.S. Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) players for the 2006 season. This study does not examine on-court performance data. Instead, it focuses on the profile of the players as human beings, by looking at their race, average age, height and weight, colleges or universities attended in the United States and which regions these institutions are located in, demographics of international players, graduation rates, etcetera. The paper also examines the issue of gender bias when it comes to salaries and advertisement or endorsement opportunities.

Share and Cite:

Kaba, A. (2012). African Americans in the US Women’s National Basketball Association, 2006: From the NCAA to the WNBA. Sociology Mind, 2, 95-108. doi: 10.4236/sm.2012.21013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Abney, R. (1999). African American women in sport. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 70, 35-38.
[2] America’s Best Colleges (2006). US News & World Report. URL (last checked 20 May 2006)
[3] Baker, C. A. (2008). Why she plays: The world of women’s basketball. Winnipeg: Bison Books.
[4] US Census Bureau (2003). The black population in the United States: March 2002. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
[5] Cahppell, R. H., & Karageorghis, C. I. (2001). Race, ethnicity, and gender in British basketball. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 10, 29-46.
[6] Coates, D., & Humphreys, B. R. (2007). Ticket prices, concessions and
[7] attendance at professional sporting events. International Journal of Sports Finance, 2, 161-170.
[8] Gaston-Gayles, J. L. (2004). Examining academic and athletic moti- vation among student athletes at a Division I University. Journal of College Student Development, 45, 75-83. doi:10.1353/csd.2004.0005
[9] Gomez, M. A., Lorenzo, A., Ortega, E., Sampaio, J., & Ibanez, S. J. (2009). Game related statistics discriminating between starters and nonstarters players in Women’s National Basketball Association League (WNBA). Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8, 278-283.
[10] Grundy, P., & Shackelford, S. (2007). Shattering the glass: The remarkable history of women’s basketball. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.
[11] Fiegener, M. K. (2009). Doctorate recipients from US universities: Summary Report 2007-2008. Arlington: Division of Science Resources Statistics. Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, National Science Foundation. Table 24, 53.
[12] Hoffer, T. B., Sederstrom, S., Selfa, L., Welch, V., Hess, M., Brown, S., Reyes, S., Webber, K., & Guzman-Barron, I. (2003). Doctorate recipients from United States universities: Summary Report 2002 (pp. 113-115). Chicago: National Opinion Research Center.
[13] Hamilton, K. (2003). Courting success; University of Tennessee finance major balances hoops excellence with academic achievement. Black Issues in Higher Education, 20, 22-23
[14] Isaacson, M. (2006). Promotions in motion: WNBA athletes do more than play: They also sell the league. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News, 1.
[15] Jacobsen, L. (2010). Shock is pleased by ticket sales for opener. Tulsa World, B1.
[16] James, J. D. (2002). Women’s and men’s basketball: A comparison of sport consumption motivations. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 11, 141-170.
[17] Kaba, A. J. (2011a). African Americans in the National Basketball Association (NBA), 2005-2006: Demography and earnings. International Journal of Social and Management Sciences, 4, 1-25.
[18] Kaba, A. J. (2011b). Characteristics of players in the 2005-2006 US National Basketball Association (NBA). URL (last checked 14 October 2011)
[19] Kaba, A. J. (2011c). Black American females as geniuses. Journal of African American Studies, 15, 120-124. doi:10.1007/s12111-010-9134-1
[20] Kaba, A. J. (2006a). The blood and family relations between Africans and Europeans in the United States. African Renaissance, 3, 105- 114.
[21] Kaba, A. J. (2006b). Race, geography and territorial inheritance: People of Black African, European and Chinese Descent. URL (last checked 14 October 2011)
[22] Kaba, A. J. (2005). Progress of African Americans in higher education attainment: The widening gender gap and its current and future implications. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13, 1-34.
[23] Kochman, L., & Goodwin, R. (2003). Market efficiency and the women’s NBA. American Business Review, 21, 141-143.
[24] Lapchick, R. (2011). Keeping score when it counts: Academic progress/graduation success rate study of NCAA Division I Women’s and Men’s Basketball Tournament Teams. URL (last checked 20 October 2011)
[25] Lapchick, R., & Kushner, D. (2006). The 2005 racial and gender report card: Women’s National Basketball Association. Orlando: University of Central Florida.
[26] McCabe, C. (2011). Spectators’ relationship women’s professional basketball: Is it more than sex? North American Journal of Psychology, 13, 107-122.
[27] McDonald, M. (2000). The marketing of the Women’s National Basketball Association and the making of Post-Feminism. International Review for the Sociology of Sports, 35, 35-47. doi:10.1177/101269000035001003
[28] NBA Sees Ticket Prices Slump (2010). The Times—Transcript Moncton, C2.
[29] Ogden, C. L., Fryar C. D., Carroll, M. D., & Flegal, K. M. (2004). Mean body weight, height, and body mass index, United States 1960-2002. Advance data from vital and health statistics; no 347. Hyattsville, MA: National Center for Health Statistics.
[30] Picker, D. (2006). East all-stars break through on night for young and old. New York Times, D.6.
[31] US Census Bureau (2005). School enrollment—social and economic characteristics of students: October 2004. Washington DC: Government Printing office.
[32] Smith, J. G., & Roy, D. P. (2011). A framework for developing customer orientation in ticket sales organizations. Sports Marketing Quarterly, 20, 93-102.
[33] Spencer, N. E., & McClung, L. R. (2001). Women and sport in the 1990s: Reflections on “embracing stars, ignoring players. Journal of Sport Management, 15, 318-349.
[34] Ruihley, B., Runyan, R. C., & Lear, K. E. (2010). The use of sport celebrities in advertising: Replication and extension. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 19, 132-142.
[35] Staffo, D. (1998a). The history of women’s professional basketball in the United States with an emphasis on the Old WBL and the New ABL and WNBA. Physical Educator, 55, 187-198.
[36] Staffo, D. F. (1998b). The development of professional basketball in the United States, with an emphasis on the history of the NBA to its 50th anniversary season in 1996-1997. Physical Educator, 55, 9-18.
[37] Videon, T. M. (2002). Who plays and who benefits: Gender, interscholastic athletics, and academic outcomes. Sociological Perspectives, 45, 415- 444. doi:10.1525/sop.2002.45.4.415
[38] Voisin, A. (2011). NBA must fix its broken business model. The Sacramento Bee. URL (last checked 8 October 2011)
[39] Wearden, S., & Creedon, P. J. (2002). “We Got Next”: Images of women in television commercials during the inaugural WNBA Season. Culture, Sport, Society, 5, 189-210. doi:10.1080/713999865
[40] Yafie, R. C. (1997). The WNBA’s full court press. The Journal of Business Strategy, 18, 32-33.
[41] 1999-00—2003-04 NCAA Student-Athlete Ethnicity Report (2005). Published by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. P.O. Box 6222. 317/917-6222.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.