The potential of two vegetable-carried blood meals as protein sources in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell) juvenile diets
Olukayode A. Makinde, Emmanuel B. Sonaiya
DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.21003   PDF    HTML     5,206 Downloads   10,839 Views   Citations


The study was designed to determine the growth response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles on diets with two vegetable-carried blood meals (brewers’ dried grains with blood meal (BB) and rumen contents with blood meal (RB)) as protein sources and alternatives to imported commercial fish feed (CatCo?). Diets, with BB and RB included at 10%, formulated to supply 45% crude protein and 4,300 Kcal digestible energy/kg in similarity with CatCo?, were used in a 49-day trial in plastic tanks (L × B × H: 53 cm × 37 cm × 29 cm; capacity 50 liters). Juveniles were evaluated in terms of mean final body weight (MFBW), mean weight gain (MWG), average daily gain (ADG), specific growth rate (SGR), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed cost/g gain (FCGA), and mortality (as % survival). CatCo? was superior (P < 0.05) to BB and RB diets in supporting MFBW, MWG, ADG, FCR, SGR, ADFI and mortality. However, CatCo? was similar (P < 0.05) to BB in PER but inferior in FCGA (0.46 vs. 0.36 Naira/g gain; 1 US$ = N150). RB was similar (P < 0.05) to BB in PER but least economical in FCGA (0.51 Naira/g gain). The study demonstrated the potential of vegetable-carried blood meals from brewers’ dried grains and dewatered rumen contents as alternatives for use as feed for African catfish especially juveniles.

Share and Cite:

Makinde, O. and Sonaiya, E. (2012) The potential of two vegetable-carried blood meals as protein sources in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell) juvenile diets. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 2, 15-18. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2012.21003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Koeleman, E. (2009) Aquaculture takes environment seriously. Feed Tech, 13.
[2] Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M. (2003) The future of fish: Issues and trends to 2020. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the WorldFish Center.
[3] Otubusin S.O., Ogunleye, F.O. and Agbebi, O.T. (2009) Feeding trials using local protein sources to replace fishmeal in pelleted feeds in catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Burchell 1822) Culture. European Journal of Scientific Research, 31, 142-147.
[4] Makinde, O.A. and Sonaiya, E.B. (2010) A simple technology for production of vegetable-carried blood or rumen fluid meals from abattoir wastes. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 162, 12-19. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2010.08.011
[5] Makinde, O.A., Sonaiya, E.B. and Adeyeye, J.O.S. (2008) Conversion of abat-toir wastes into livestock feed: Chemical composition of sun-dried rumen content with blood meal and its effect on per-formance of broiler chickens. Tropentag 2008—Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, 7-9 October 2008.
[6] Makinde, O.A., Sonaiya, E.B. and Adeyeye, J.O.S. (2007) Perfor-mance of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) fin-gerlings on diets with two vegetable-carried blood meals com-pared with a commercial fish feed. Tropical Journal of Animal Science, 10, 135-140.
[7] Robinson, E.H., Li, M.H. and Manning, B.B. (2001) A practical guide to nutrition, feeds, and feeding of channel catfish (second revision). Mississipi Agri-cultural and Forestry Experimental Station Bulletin 1113, Office of Agricultural Communications, Mississipi.
[8] Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. (1980) Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill Co., New York.
[9] NRC (1993) Nutrient requirements of fish. Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agricultural National R.C. Academy Press, Washington DC.
[10] AOAC (1990) Asssociation of official analytical chemists. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Edition, AOAC, Arlington Virginia, USA.
[11] American Public Health Asso-ciation (APHA) (1990) Standard methods of examination of water and waste water. Washington DC, 1134-1135.
[12] Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) (2000) Guide for personal computers. Release 8.1. SAS institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
[13] Summerfelt, R.C. (1998) Water quality considerations for aquaculture.
[14] Santhosh, K. and Selvaraj, S. (2005) African catfish: a potential candidate species for urban/periurban aquaculture in India. Aquaculture Asia, 10, 11-12.
[15] Coppens (2005) Coppens feed for aquaculture. CatCo? grower 12-EF. Coppens International Bv., Helmond, Netherlands.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.