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Analysis on the Role of Precision Poverty Alleviation in Promoting the Rural Governance Socialization

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105633    75 Downloads   166 Views  
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ABSTRACT

Precision poverty alleviation is an important measure to eliminate absolute poverty and achieve a moderately prosperous society. The scale of poverty alleviation and the mobilization of social forces are huge, the goal is arduous. Its significance is no less than a social revolution that deeply changes the productivity and production relations in the backward areas. Since the precision poverty alleviation was applied, most scholars have only studied it as a policy measure, constantly looking for the basis for the rationality of its policy, making suggestions for its implementation effect from the perspective of methodology. However, it’s still lack of the research of the impact about the massive poverty reduction campaign of precision poverty alleviation to the whole world. Actually, precision poverty alleviation is no less than a huge-scale reform between the social productivity and production relations, which greatly promotes the socialization of rural areas, farmers and rural governance.

1. Introduction

On November 2013, when general secretary Xi Jinping visited western Hunan, he pointed out that “poverty alleviation should be based on facts and be tailored to local conditions. To take precision measures to alleviate poverty, we must not shout slogans” [1] . “Precision poverty alleviation” was proposed for the first time. The proposal of “precision poverty alleviation” is undoubtedly the crystallization of the collective wisdom of the CPC central committee with Xi Jinping as general secretary, the concrete embodiment of the achievements of reform and development shared by all the people, and the innovation of the theory of poverty alleviation of socialism with Chinese characteristics. This new way of poverty alleviation provides an effective strategy for building a moderately prosperous society in the new era and realizing common prosperity for all. For example, Xie Ping’s philosophical reflection on “precision poverty alleviation” describes the specific meaning, characteristics, methods and practical significance of “precision poverty alleviation” [2] from the perspective of philosophy. The author thinks that precision poverty alleviation should get the internal and external cause, poor people and poor areas are the internal cause, support units, cadres and policy are the external cause, “Only catch both the internal and external cause in the regional poverty, and both pay equal attention at the same time, take flexible and reasonable measures, suit the remedy to the case, can really make in the phase of poverty population out of poverty”. At the same time from the particularity of contradiction and all from the practical point of view to explore the precision poverty alleviation philosophical methods. Some scholars think about precision poverty alleviation from the perspective of theory and reality. For example, Wang Sitie believes that precision poverty alleviation is “a way to treat poverty by accurately identifying, helping and managing the objects of poverty alleviation with scientific and effective procedures for different poverty-stricken areas and conditions of poor farmers” [3] . In the rural precision poverty alleviation: situation analysis, theoretical basis and practice, Li kun and Ye Xingjian trace from the rights poverty theory, the inclusive growth poverty concept, the concept of participatory poverty alleviation, and collaborative anti-poverty theory, trickle-down theory and pro-poor theory pointed out accurate poverty alleviation of poverty reduction concept such as, and claim that the precision poverty alleviation is a pro-poor type means of poverty reduction, and also the cooperative multi-party participation, coordination [4] . Wang Sangui and Guo Zihao believe that “the most basic definition of precision poverty alleviation is that the poverty alleviation policies and measures should be precision at the real poor families and the population, and the various factors and obstacles leading to poverty should be fundamentally eliminated through precision assistance to the poor population, so as to achieve the goal of sustainable poverty alleviation” [5] . Some scholars believe that the idea of precision poverty alleviation is an action theory, which has practical and theoretical origins and aims to lift all the poor people out of poverty by 2020 [6] . The above researches have extensively studied the strategies, methods, measures and other aspects of precision poverty alleviation. However, the profound impact of precision poverty alleviation on rural governance, development, rural areas and farmers’ ideology has not been seen in relevant literatures.

The author holds that socialization is not only the transformation process of social individual’s role in society, but also the process of social unit adapting to social role in social changes. Therefore, this paper aims to study the effects and changes of precision poverty alleviation and precision poverty alleviation on rural society, agriculture, rural areas and farmers.

2. Precision Poverty Alleviation Is a Profound Social Transformation

On November 29, 2015, the CPC central committee and the state council issued the decision of the CPC central committee and the state council on winning the battle against poverty (hereinafter referred to as the decision). The goal is to ensure that by 2020, the rural poor will have enough food and clothing, and have the security of compulsory education, basic medical care and housing. The increase in per capita disposable income of rural residents in poor areas was higher than the national average, and indicators in major areas of basic public services were close to the national average. We will ensure that the rural poor are lifted out of poverty by China’s current standards that all poverty-stricken counties are lifted out of poverty, and that overall regional poverty is addressed. According to the statistics at the end of 2014, there were more than 70 million rural poor people at that time. According to statistics, most are ethnic minority areas, old revolutionary base areas, remote mountainous areas, contiguous distribution is obvious; second, poverty is so deep that it is not easy to get rid of poverty. Although the state again and again to help, still in poverty, is a typical hard nut to crack; third, low degree of socialization. Although the modern socialization wave after wave, wave after wave, but these areas are still “spring sad jade gate” characteristics, there is a natural resistance to the socialization wave. Complex, of course, there are many other reasons lead to poverty, but these three characteristics particularly, at the same time also determines the precision of poverty alleviation is a siege village, overcome the difficult fight, pull a good soldier is tough game requires strength, need to take large-scale operations, need strong leadership and strong, flexible, chain of command.

In fact, since precision poverty alleviation, the CPC central committee with general secretary Xi Jinping at its core has led the Chinese people to fight against poverty with determination. The strong leadership core has pointed out the direction of precision poverty alleviation, and an effective command system has been established from the central government to local governments, laying a solid foundation for winning the battle against poverty. In addition, various systems, units, social groups and organizations, between the east and the west, between urban and rural areas, and between industries have participated in precision poverty alleviation on a large scale. Accurate poverty alleviation widely mobilize all social forces, resultant force to promote poverty, and is the force of a national, mobilization of the national people’s involved in a major war, its scale, wide scope, degree of deep and profound influence is unprecedented, old, less, it will totally change the social appearance, poor region, is a can’t see the smoke of the social revolution, hit the most profound changes.

3. Precision Poverty Alleviation Promotes Rural Socialization

The large-scale implementation of precision poverty alleviation has a great impact on the development of the whole countryside and greatly promotes the transformation of traditional rural society into modern society. According to impoverished village take off poverty “one is low 5 have” namely: whole village poverty incidence rate is less than 3%, have collective economy income, have hardened road, have sanitary room, have culture room, have communication network standard, main expression is in the following respects.

1) Infrastructure development. Through accurate assistance, roads, water, electricity, communications and housing in poor villages have been guaranteed. The construction of these infrastructures is in accordance with modern standards, greatly promoting the degree of rural modernization.

2) Rural industrial development. The main cause of poverty in rural areas, especially in poor areas, is the lack of corresponding industrial support and economic development platform. Through accurate assistance, each poor village not only has a collective economy, but also promotes the development of foreign industries into the village and local industries. It promotes the social integration of rural economy and the socialization of economy.

3) Modern culture and education in rural areas. Without culture and education, the progress of rural socialization is slow and groundless. In the process of precision poverty alleviation, night schools for farmers have been set up in various localities, standard cultural rooms have been built in every village, and community-level organizations have been strengthened to ensure the full coverage of compulsory education.

4) Public services such as medical security. A large part of the rural poor are caused by major diseases. In order to ensure that these sick groups get rid of poverty and ensure the health level of the rural population. In fact, some areas have also implemented free medical care for poor households, and then changed the ratio of personal payment to no more than 10%. Every poor village has set up health clinics in accordance with the requirements, promoted the coverage and extension of public services such as medical security, and promoted the equalization of public services.

These above changes have been well realized in Laowaping Village Chaya Township and Baishuba Village, Yongning Township, Wanyuan City, Sichuan Province.

4. Precision Poverty Alleviation Has Promoted the Socialization of Governance

On October 12, 2016, general secretary Xi Jinping issued important instructions on strengthening and innovating social governance, stressing the need to improve the socialist social governance system with Chinese characteristics, pay more attention to democracy and the rule of law, scientific and technological innovation, and make social governance more socialized, legalized, intelligent and professional. Among them, the socialization of social governance is ranked the first in the “four modernizations”.

The governance socialization is to strengthen the orderly participation of social governance, improve the degree of socialization of social governance. The fourth plenary session of the 18th central committee of the communist party of China (CPC) proposed to support the self-restraint and self-management of all kinds of social subjects, and bring into play the positive role of social norms in social governance, such as civic conventions, township rules and regulations, industrial rules and regulations, and corporate charting. The function of citizen self-restraint and self-management needs extensive democratic participation. Some scholars specially analyzed the mode of “first secretary” to change village governance in the reform of village governance, that is, a new pattern of village governance supported by the state, dominated by the village committee and participated by the villagers was formed, which triggered the reform of governance body: from endogenous to embedded; Transformation of governance objectives: from maintenance to reconstruction; Change of governance: from authority to participation [7] . In fact, precision poverty alleviation has a profound impact on the governance of rural society. It is mainly manifested in the following three aspects:

1) Extensive participation of the first secretary and village cadres. The dispatching personnel are units, excellent personnel from all walks of life, they have the knowledge, ability, and have unit and industry resources to support, and on behalf of the state will, at the grass-roots level is the national policy of the propagandist, practitioners and supervisors, relative Yu Cunshe cadres, grass-roots staff, has a huge advantage, they fulfill their duty in executing process of extensive and profound influence on rural grass-roots governance. Some scholars put forward that it is external intervention governance, or called embedded governance, or collaborative governance, etc. No matter which kind of statement is enough to show that these personnel have a great impact on rural governance and will produce positive effects.

2) Helping units participate. According to the current precision support pattern in our country, the local government, especially the main responsibility of a people’s government at the county level and then spread through layer upon layer of pressure to until the township people’s government, village cadres, though this, but in terms of support, the main leadership main responsibilities involved in the support unit, and already has witness should be brought into the unit performance appraisal management, therefore, the support unit is active, actively participate in the county, township and village in the management, and on the basis of units of their own advantages, to help all levels, change management, continually promote the standardization and modernization of grassroots governance.

3) Industrial sector intervention. As mentioned above, precision poverty alleviation is almost a large-scale combat with the participation of the whole people, involving agriculture, civil affairs, finance, transportation, education, communication, culture, electricity and other industries, so as to give full play to the advantages of the industry to promote precision poverty alleviation. All walks of life and some social groups and organizations have assumed their own functions to the most grass-roots and remote areas. To build roads first, traffic in remote areas is the biggest bottleneck restricting development. When traffic is smooth, all walks of life can enter and help. Through several years of efforts, at present, most of the poor areas of the traffic conditions have been greatly improved, thus, electricity, communications, culture and other aspects have been gradually improved and improved.

5. Precision Poverty Alleviation Promotes the Socialization of Farmers

According to the poverty alleviation standards, “one and six have” means that the per capita net income of the poor people steadily exceeds the national poverty alleviation standard, and they have enough food and clothing. They have compulsory education, basic medical care, housing security, safe drinking water, electricity and radio and television. In short, “two worries, three guarantees”.

That is, do not worry about food, do not worry about clothing, “three guarantees” namely compulsory education, basic medical care, housing security is guaranteed. In some areas, four new areas have been added to the list, namely, better housing, better living standards, better habits and a better atmosphere. No matter which standard or formulation is adopted, the implementation of these policies has a profound impact on the poor people in poor areas, mainly manifested in the following four aspects:

1) Socialization of peasants’ thinking. Due to the limitation of natural conditions, farmers in remote areas are almost isolated from modern society. They have no modern communication tools and no modern education means. They only teach by word of mouth from generation to generation. So the modern transformation of peasant thought is not a matter of a day and a night, it is an arduous long-term project. But in the process of precision on the implementation of poverty alleviation, support staff, support units, and various support main body are aware of the importance of poverty alleviation by word of mouth, through holding peasant night school, culture building, education training, such as a variety of ways, for realize the modernization of the poor masses ideology, gradually cultivating awareness of market competition, open, cooperative awareness and integrity awareness, help their ideas out of rural this small circle, make them in gradually change the backward ideas.

2) Socialization of farmers’ way of life. With the implementation of the precision poverty alleviation policy, farmers in remote areas, especially those poor farmers, have modernized their way of life by means of poverty alleviation, relocation and matching assistance. It is mainly reflected in the gradual integration of life with the socialized market and the realization of marketization. For example, the newly built houses are replaced by reinforced concrete ones, and the sanitary toilets of flush toilets are replaced by the smelly outdoor thatched houses. The gap between clothing, food, housing and use has been narrowed with modern society. For some poor people who have moved to other places, moving out of remote places with bad environment is equivalent to stepping into modern society, and the change is earth-shaking.

3) Socialization of farmers’ production methods. Targeted poverty alleviation has promoted the socialization of farmers’ production methods, mainly reflected in the integration of production with modern society, the production methods transfer to market based, the use of some agricultural machines, the popularization of modern planting and cultivation technology, and the mechanization, electrification and informatization of production. Gradually centralizing land, setting up agricultural companies, production bases and leading enterprises in deep processing of agricultural products, according to the market demand, centralizing production and operation, and realizing the reasonable way of agricultural industrialization are also reliable ways for farmers to avoid the risk of modern big market. Through accurate assistance, development of leading industries, e-commerce support and other modern means, remote rural traditional agricultural production mode to modern agricultural production mode transformation.

6. Conclusion

Since the opium war in 1840, Chinese society has gradually disintegrated from a feudal society to a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the socialist system was established through the transformation of the socialist country. China’s rural areas have experienced the impact and baptism after the socialization. However, some remote places are always difficult to integrate into the modern society due to various restrictions, and even face the risk of falling back to the traditional society after slowly breaking away from the modern society, currently mobilize all the social forces to make precise the battle for poverty alleviation, to solve the rural poverty problem, effectively promote these poor areas and poor masses quickly move into the modern society, promoting of the socialization of rural and peasants will effectively promote the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, for the Chinese society, the international community and the development of human society will provide beneficial reference and have far-reaching influence.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Cite this paper

Li, Y. (2019) Analysis on the Role of Precision Poverty Alleviation in Promoting the Rural Governance Socialization. Open Access Library Journal, 6, 1-8. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1105633.

References

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[3] Wang, S. (2014) On Precision Poverty Alleviation. Xinhua Daily, March 27.
[4] Li, K. and Ye, X. (2015) Rural Precision Poverty Alleviation: Theoretical Basis and Practical Situation Analysis. Journal of Fujian Administration Institute, 2.
[5] Wang, S. and Guo, Z. (2015) On the Precise and Ingenious Poverty in China. Guizhou Social Sciences.
[6] Tan, X.-W. and Li, J. (2017) In-Depth Research on the Practice of Xi Jinping’s Precision Poverty Alleviation Thought. Chinese Rural Economy, No. 9, 2-16.
[7] Yang, F. (2016) “First Secretary” in Village and Village Governance Reform. Tribune of Study, 32, 52-55.

  
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