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How Indonesian’s Online News Papers Report the Conflict between Palestine and Israel—A Case of Republika.co.id and Kompas.com

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DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.75025    145 Downloads   323 Views  

ABSTRACT

Purposes: This research is to know how the two online media report the conflict between Israel-Palestine perceived from the topics and the content. The analysis used in this study using the methods of discourse analysis and content analysis to get the answers to the formulation of the problem. Methodology/Approach: Content analysis was conducted to answer the formulation of the problem (quantitative method) using the chi-square. This study examined the entire contents of the news of the two online news media republika.co.id and kompas.com on the conflict between Israel and Palestine reported during 2009-2010. We use all data population is 1403 news. Findings: News categories: attack, cease fire, and expansion are significantly not different between the years 2009 to 2010 of the online news media studied (kompas and republika), it can be seen on the acquisition value of χ2< 3.84 ( ) or has a probability value >0.05. The seven categories of news, namely: negotiation, agreement, demonstration, victim, cooperation, offensive, and assistance have value  χ2> 3.84 ( ) or have a probability value <0.05, which means that the category of news between 2009 and 2010 has a different number of news media coverage of both online media (kompas and republika). Both the online media have presented the news about Israel and the Palestinian conflict with a good, impartial one of the country experiencing conflict. So everything is presented in a balanced and candid way. The majority of Indonesian people do not like the aggression committed by Israel against the Palestinians.

Cite this paper

Ukk, I. and Bui, D. (2019) How Indonesian’s Online News Papers Report the Conflict between Palestine and Israel—A Case of Republika.co.id and Kompas.com. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 290-331. doi: 10.4236/jss.2019.75025.

1. Introduction

Conflict is an event that often raises the pros and cons and both casualties and material casualties. Tensions occur between countries or parties in conflict are usually caused by differences in opinions or views, either on the border and territory rights, religious views, and cultural differences are often also a trigger of conflict. Conflicts can also occur because of a political game, both politically between individuals, groups, and the state. Sometimes a big role in politics has sparked a conflict or war.

The news media has become the central arena for political conflicts. It is not surprising when the role of the news media in political conflicts is an issue that has received a good deal of public attention in recent years. Policy makers, journalists, and social scientists all point to the important role of the press in events such as the war in Bosnia, the conflict in Somalia, the Gulf war, the Palestinian intifada, the events at Tiananmen Square, and the massive protests throughout Eastern Europe and Russia in the dying days of communist regimes [1] .

The idea of “new media” captures both the development of unique forms of digital media, and the remaking of more traditional media forms to adopt and adapt to the new media technologies. Indeed, the lines between “new” and “old” media are hard to draw. The content of new media such as on World Wide Web sites is frequently recombinant-derived from already existing media content developed in other formats (printed text, photographs, films, recorded music, television) and reproduced in a digital format, rather than involving the generation of new content [2] . New media development has also involved the giants of traditional media establishing a digital presence and revising their established media products, as well as new media content, and the emergence of new media forms such as newspapers and news services, cinema, and radio can be taken as being illustrative of this duality in the development of new media, involving what [3] describes as “the rapid development of new digital media and the nearly as rapid response by traditional media”.

As one of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) country, Indonesian government always tried to remain neutral in any conflict that occurs between nations, for Indonesia itself has a variety of cultures and differences. Indonesia is a country respecting any existing differences, either in the form of religion, opinion, politics, culture, etc.

Indonesia is a country that has diverse cultures, religions, and political perspective as well as a variety of social status that can cause a variety of views among the community. Multicultural Indonesia’s make Bhineka Tunggal Ika as the State motto, still often experience tension and friction between groups in society because of differences in ethnicity, race, and religion. So the issue of conflict will be news that interesting to be listened by the society.

Reporting on the conflict between Israel and the Palestinian state that began in 2002 became a hot topic in Indonesia, where the growing opinions in the Indonesian community, cause have different interests, religion, business, and the recognition of independence of the country. Indonesia has one of the frequent conflicts with domestic and neighboring countries like Malaysia because the interests of the state and tribal differences that causes this to happen recognition of independence of any problems experienced by Indonesia. Dutch recognize the independence of Indonesia recently while Indonesia itself proclaimed its independence in 1945 (67 years ago of independence).

Internet today has become one of the means to provide information to public. Coverage of all events happening in the world today which is always updated from home to line would be very easy to access via the internet. Topics of conflict will be a very interesting issue for everyone in any country he/she belongs to, where one of them is the country of Indonesia.

As a country with the biggest Moslem population in the world, the conflict between Palestine and Israel became a very important topic to be read. This is a question for the Indonesian community in particular or the worlds in general have questioned whether the conflict between Palestine and Israel is a state of conflict or religious conflict.

Phenomenon of conflict between the two countries is very important to be studied for the world of journalism to provide complete and correct information on Indonesian society. Differences issues and conflicts between Israel and the Palestinians to be one interesting topic to be researched, but Indonesia has a multicultural and diverse religious communities also have different views respond issues and conflicts are growing, both in country and abroad.

Although issues of Israel-Palestine conflict is interesting for every media, the way the media reports the issues would not be the same, even though the reports are very quite different. This happens due to a number of reasons such as the orientation of the media, standard of news objectivity, etc.

2. Communication

2.1. Definitions of Communication

In this simplest form communication is the transmission of a message from a source to a receiver. For over 60 years now, this view of communication has been identified with the writing of political scientist Harold Lasswell (1948). He said that a convenient way to describe communication is to answer these questions:

1) Who? Source

2) Say what? Message

3) Through which channel? Channel

4) To whom? Receiver

5) With what effect? Feedback

Expressed in terms of the basic elements of the communication process, communication occurs when a source sends a message through a medium to a receiver producing some effect. Straightforward enough, but what if the source is a professor who insists on speaking in a technical language far beyond the receiving students’ level of skill? Obviously, communication does not occur. Unlike mere message-sending, communication requires the response of others. Therefore, there must be a sharing (or correspondence) of meaning for communication to take place. A second problem with this simple model is that it suggests that the receiver passively accepts the source’s message. However, if our imaginary students do not comprehend the professor’s words, they respond with “Huh?” or look confused or yawn. This response, or feedback, is also a message. The receivers (the students) now become a source, sending their own message to the source (the offending professor), who is now a receiver. Hence, communication is a reciprocals and ongoing process with all involved parties more or less engaged in creating shared meaning. Communication, then, is better defined as the process of creating shared meaning.

The communication process consists of a message being sent and received. The message may be verbal or non-verbal. The same basic principles apply whether humans, animals, other forms of life, or combinations of these are involved. Your challenge, as an instructor, is to not merely communicate with your students but to communicate effectively. Effective communication involves a message being sent and received.

The classic model that stresses the dominance of the media was developed by Wilbur Schramm (1982), often credited as the founder of mass communication studies. He created what is known as the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver (SMCR) model. The SMCR mode of mass communication describes the exchange of information as the message passes from the source to channel to the receiver, with feedback to the source.

1) Source (Sender)

Is the originator of the communication [4] .

2) Message

Is the Content of the communication, the information that is to be exchanged.

3) Channels

Is the medium or transmission system used to convey the message from one place to another. A channel is an electronic or mechanical system that links the source to the receiver [5] .

In economic terms, “the media” show up as very disparate, although they do have some shared features. Most obviously there are a number of different, often competing, media (newspapers, television, film, radio, etc.) within the same national “media system”, each with different advantages and disadvantages for producers, advertisers and consumers. Equally obviously, media are structured geographically, with media provision geared to population considered as international, national, regional, city or local markets.

Media (especially press and broadcasting) should provide a comprehensive supply of relevant news and background information about events in the society and the world around [6] .

The media can:

a) cause intended change,

b) cause unintended change,

c) cause minor change (form or intensity),

d) facilitate change (intended or not),

e) reinforce what exists (no change),

f) prevent change [7] .

4) Receiver

Is the destination of the communication [8] .

The three modes of (mutual) audience orientation and related experiences can be approximately summed up as follows: Cognitive processing; sharing and normative commitment; attention giving.

There are types of audiences as follows:

· Audience as target

In communication process is considered primarily as the sending of signals or messages over time for the purposes of control or influence. The receiver, and thus audience are perceived as a destination or target for the purposeful transfer of meaning. This model applies, for example, to education and many kinds of public information campaign, as well as some kinds of advertising. Its basic process is one of “cognitive processing”.

· Audience as participants

Communication is defined in terms of sharing and participation, increasing the commonality between sender and receiver, rather than in terms of changing “receivers” in line with the purpose of the “sender”. Communication is not primarily instrumental or utilitarian, but normative. Audience members are essentially participants.

· Audience as spectators

The third audience type arises in a model of communication in which the source does not seek to transmit information or beliefs, but simply to capture the attention of an audience, regardless of communicative effects. Audience attention as “spectatorship” is involving, but not for long. It implies no “transfer of meaning” or sharing or deepening of ties between sender and receiver [9] .

5) Effect/Feedback

Is mechanism between the source and the receiver regulates the flow of communication [10] .

2.2. The Stimulus-Response Model

Individual response and individual reaction can be dealt with together under this heading, since they share the same underlying behavioral model, that of stimulus-response or conditioning. Although appropriate here, the model also has a much wider potential application. The model’s main features can be simply as follows:

Single message → individual receiver → reaction.

It applies more or less equally to intended and to unintended effects, although there is a significant difference between responses (implying some interaction on the part of the receiver). A more extended version of the basic response and learning process as it occurs in persuasion and opinion formation is indicated by McGuire (1973) in the form of six stages in sequence: presentation, attention, comprehension, yielding, retention, overt behavior [11] .

2.3. Types of Communication

2.3.1. Interpersonal Communication

Encoded messages are carried by a medium, that is, the means of sending information. Sound waves are the medium that carries our voice to friends across the table; the telephone is the medium that carries our voice to friends across town. When the medium is a technology that carries messages to a large number a people—as newspapers carry the printed word and radio conveys the sound of music and news—we call it a mass medium (the plural of medium is media). The mass media we use regularly include radio, television, books, magazines, newspapers, movies, sound recordings, and computer networks. Each medium is the basis of a giant industry, but other related and supporting industries also server them and us—advertising and public relations, for example. In our culture we use the word media and mass media interchangeably to refer to the communication industries themselves. We say, “The media entertain” or “The mass media are too conservative (or too liberal)” [12] .

2.3.2. Mass Communication

We speak, too, of mass communication. Mass communication is the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences. Schramm recast his and Osgood’s general model of communication to help us visualize the particular aspects of the mass communication process. This model and the original Osgood-Schramm model have much in common-interpreter, encoding, decoding, and messages-but it is their differences that are most significant for our understanding of how mass communication differs from other forms of communication. For example, whereas the original model includes “message”, the mass communication model offers “many identical messages”. In addition, the mass communication model specifies “feedback”, whereas the interpersonal communication model does not. When two or a few people communicate face-to-face the participants can immediately and clearly recognize the feedback residing in the reciprocal messages (our boring professor can see and hear the student’s disenchantment as they listen to the lecture). Things are not nearly as simple in mass communication [13] .

In Schramm’s mass communication model, feedback is represented by a dotted line labeled delayed inferential feedback. This feedback is indirect rather than direct. Television executives, for example, must wait a day, at the very minimum, and sometimes a week or a month, to discover the ratings for new programs. Even then, the ratings measure only how many sets are tuned in, not whether people liked or disliked the programs. As a result, these executives can only infer what they must do to improve programming; hence the term inferential feedback. Mass communicators are also subject to additional feedback, usually in the form of criticism in other media, such as a television critic writing a column in a newspaper. The differences between the individual elements of interpersonal and mass communication change the very nature of the communication process.

As a result, interpersonal communication is often personally relevant and possibly even adventurous and challenging. In contrast, the distance between participants in the mass communication process, imposed by the technology, creates a sort of “communication conservatism”. Feedback comes too late to enable corrections or alterations in communication that fails. The sheer number of people in many mass communication audiences makes personalization and specificity difficult. As a result, mass communication tends to be more constrained, less free. This does not mean, however, that it is less potent than interpersonal communication in shaping our understanding of ourselves and our world.

Media theorist [14] recognized this and offered a cultural definition of communication that has had a profound impact on the way communication scientists and others have viewed the relationship between communication and culture. Carey wrote, “Communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired and transformed”.

[15] definition asserts that communication and reality are linked. Communication is a process embedded in our everyday lives that informs the way we perceive, understand, and construct our view of reality and the world. Communication is the foundation of our culture. Its truest purpose is to maintain ever-evolving, “fragile” cultures, communication is that “sacred ceremony that draws persons together in fellowship and commonality” [16] .

2.4. Mass Communication

Defined of Mass Communication

Mass communication as a set of media institutions. A common view of mass communication is as a set of media institutions—the organizations that send mediated messages through various channels. In fact, most college-level introductory texts on the subject of mass communication are organized according to this view, with a chapter devoted to each of the mass media industries, including newspapers, magazines, books, film, radio, television, and their “support” industries, advertising and public relations.

The defining feature of these media institutions is their capacity for mass production and dissemination of messages [17] and others have argued, the technologies powering the mass media unshackled communication from the bounds of time and space, thereby enabling for the first time in history instant communication with a large and largely anonymous audience. Media institutions such as film studios and television networks crystallized quickly to capitalize on and profit from the new opportunity for communication on a massive scale. These organizations were wildly successful, which enabled them to grow large, although the technologies themselves kept entry costs high, allowing only a few companies to dominate each media industry. Thus, by the middle of the 20th century, the mass media could be characterized by their “bigness and fewness” [18] .

Mass communication theory can be divided into five categories; social scientific, normative, operational, everyday, and critical theory. Another way to classify mass communication theory is by its goals: social scientific theory seeks prediction and control; critical theory seeks emancipation and freedom; hermeneutic theory tries to understand how those in an observed social situation interpret that situation. The explanatory power of mass communication theory, however, is constantly challenged by the presence of many media, their many facets and characteristics, their constant change, and always-developing audience, and the ever-evolving nature of the societies that use them [19] .

As effects researchers increasingly studied mass communication from the audience site, there seemed to be fewer effects that could be attributed to mass communication. Audiences were only idiosyncratically attentive to the intended meanings of messages (content) and sometimes highly erratic in terms of their attention to the media (producers) altogether. For example, the “uses and gratifications” approach to audience research asserts that the audience member’s attentiveness is strictly “motivated and directed toward the gratification of certain individually experienced needs” [20] . What kinds of gratification can distance learning create for its communities? (This question points to a research agenda with potential relevance for the field of distance education; however, it would require knowledge of mass communication research literature).

Following the lead of Lerner and Schramm, mass communication scholar Everett Rogers highlighted the role of mediated communication in his work on the Diffusion of Innovations [21] . He advanced a top-down model of communication in which innovations in education as well as other social practices, such as agricultural and governmental arrangements, are dependent on rising levels of media penetration and the identification of indigenous elites (innovators) to lead the economic, political and social changes that are part and parcel of national development. Each of these researchers (Schramm, Lerner and Rogers) thought of new media as neutral objects through which messages passed from producers to audiences. They adapted the more general theories of mass communication that highlighted the impact or effects of media on an individual’s attitudes and behaviors to conduct research and recommend policies for developing countries. Their policy recommendations were based most often on the findings of surveys conducted by various US-government agencies and educational foundations (in particular the data collected in Asia and Latin America) [22] .

2.5. Types of Mass Communication

2.5.1. Printed of Mass Communication

1) Newspaper

A newspaper is a scheduled publication containing news of current events, informative articles, diverse features and advertising. It usually is printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint [23] .

General-interest newspapers typically publish stories on local and national political events and personalities, crime, business, entertainment, society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and columns that express the personal opinions of writers. The newspaper is typically funded by paid subscriptions and advertising.

A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers, including editorial opinions, criticism, persuasion and op-eds; obituaries; entertainment features such as crosswords, sudoku and horoscopes; weather news and forecasts; advice, food and other columns; reviews of radio, movies, television, plays and restaurants; classified ads; display ads, radio and television listings, inserts from local merchants, editorial cartoons, gag cartoons and comic.

2) Book

Books are diverse and hard to characterize in general terms. According to the Association of American Publishers, the major categories of book genres are as follows:

a) Trade books: hard- or soft-cover, including “serious” fiction and most nonfiction such as cookbooks, biographies, how-to books, and art books.

b) Professional books: Reference or professional education books aimed at doctors, lawyers, scientists, researchers, managers, and engineers such as The Programmer’s Guide to Windows NT.

c) Elementary, high school and college textbooks. Such as media Now: Communications Media in the information Age, Fifth Edition.

d) Mass market paperbacks. Softbound books, generally smaller in format and less expensive than trade paperbacks such as Teeth of the Tiger by Tom Clancy.

e) Religious books. Bibles, other sacred texts, hymnals, prayer books, and commentaries.

f) Book club editions. Clubs that publish, sell, and distribute their own edition of mass market books, professional books, and other specialized books. For example: The Quality Paperback Club, for instance, issues trade paperback versions of current hardcover best-seller.

g) Mail-order publications. Books largely created by publishers to be sold by mail. These are usually classic novel or specialized series on such subjects as cooking, western history, wars, cars, and aviation such as the Time-Life series on cowboy.

h) Subscription reference books. Books sold as a package or series, including encyclopedias, atlases, dictionaries, a glossaries, and thesauruses.

i) Audiovisual and multimedia. Videotapes, CD-ROM, computer discs, slides, and audiotape marketed primarily to schools, companies, and training groups, but also to individuals, by both regular publishing houses and new multimedia publishing companies. For example: Microsoft’s Encarta encyclopedia series.

3) University and scholarly presses

Scholarly or artistic books of primary appeal to scholars and libraries such as Jan Nederveen Pieters’s Globalization and Culture.

Magazines began to develop in Great Britain in the 1700s. They carried fiction and nonfiction in varying degrees, depending on the readership.

Newsmagazine is a weekly magazine focused on news and analysis [24] . Examples of newsmagazine are Time, Life, and Newsweek. They covered weekly events, politics, and arts and contained reviews, travelogues, short stories, and serialized fiction; they were aimed at educated elite.

4) Novel

Novel is extended fictional works usually of book length. The antecedents of novels are about daily life, romances, mysteries, and horror or terror existed well before the advent of printing [25] .

2.5.2. Electronic Mass Communication

1) Radio: Early radio broadcast Morse code not music. It used radio waves that composed of electromagnetic energy and rise and fall in regular cycles. Radio gets improvements of system time by time.

The technologies of radio progress are as follows:

a) High Definition Radio transmits audio that has been converted to computer data, as in a CD recording, over the air from earth bound radio transmitters to special digital receivers.

b) Satellite Radio’s Technology.

The broadcast must hurry if they want to remain the leading source of live sound. Radio transmits music via satellite to compact receivers via wafer-shaped antennas that can be placed on the roof of a car, by passing earthbound radio stations entirely.

c) Internet Radio’s technology.

More radio stations started putting their signals on websites, but many web radio station are completely independent from broadcast radio stations are available only on the Internet.

d) Webcast.

Webcast or Internet radio stations use varying technologies for “streaming” a continuous transmission over the Internet. In another words, a webcast is a broadcast on the World Wide Web [26] .

2) Radio News

During the medium’s first three decades, the term network and news were virtually synonymous. Most of the news broadcast over America radio stations emanated from the networks. The public’s dependence on networks radio news reached its height during World War II. As television succeeded radio as the mainstay for entertainment programming in the 1950s and the 1960s, the network concentrated their efforts in supplying affiliates with news and information feeds. This approach helped the network regain their footing in radio after a period of substantial decline by the mid-1960s, the majority of the nation’s stations utilized one of the four major networks for news programming.

Several state and regional news networks do well, but big three, ABC, NBC, and CBS, continue to dominate. Meanwhile, independent satellite news and information networks have joined the field and more are planned [27] .

Radio Sportscast: Sports is most commonly presented as an element within newscasts. While many stations air sports as programming features unto themselves, most stations insert information, such as scores and schedules of upcoming games, at a designated point in a newscast and call it sports largely depends on its audience [28] . Stations gearing their formats for younger or women often all but ignores sports. Adult-oriented stations, such as Middle-of-the-Road, will frequently offer a greater abundance of sports information, especially when the nation is located in an area that has a major league team.

The style of a news story and a sports story may differ considerably. While news is written in a no-frills, straight forward way, sports stories often contain colorful colloquialisms and even popular slang.

The wire services and networks are the primary source for sports news at local stations. On the other hands, information about the outcome of local games, such as high school football and so forth, must be acquired firsthand. This usually entails a call to the team’s coach or a direct report from a stringer or reporter [29] .

Radio News and the FCC: The government takes a greater role in regulating broadcast journalism than it does print. Whereas it usually maintains a hand-off position when it comes to newspapers, the government keeps a watchful eye on radio to ensure that it meets certain operating criteria. Since the FCC perceives the airways as public domain, it expects broadcasters to operate in the public’s interest [30] . The FCC requires that radio reporters present news factually and in good faith. Stories that defame citizens through reckless or false statements may not only bring a libel suit from the injures party but action from the FCC, which views such behaviour on the part of broadcasters as contrary to the public interest.

3) Television

Television has been continuously evolving, and it would be risky to try to summarize its features in terms of communicative purposes and effects. Initially the main genre innovation of television stemmed from its capacity to transmit many pictures and sound live and thus act as a “window on the world” in real time. A second important feature of television is the sense of intimacy and personal involvement that it seems able to cultivate between the spectator and presenter or the actors and participants on screen.

The progressing of television systems:

a) Cable television transmits television program via coaxial cable or fiber.

b) Television receive-only (TVRO) was a backyard satellite system that let individual homes receive the same channels intended for cable systems.

c) High-definition television (HDTV) is digital television that provides a wider and clearer picture [31] .

There are some products of television, as follows:

a) Network News.

b) Local News. Most programs produced by local television stations are either newscasts or magazines-format shows.

c) Sport. The networks also maintain their own sports divisions that supply the announcers, equipment, and staff for broadcasts of sporting events.

d) Public TV.

e) Cable Production. National cable networks follow the same content acquisition strategies as the national broadcast networks, but local production is rather limited. Many cables systems produce their own local origination (created within the community by having no direct control. cable operator). Most cable systems also maintain community access channels over which the operator [32] .

The status of television as the most “massive” of the media in terms of reach, time spent and popularity has barely changed over thirty years and it adds all the time to its global audience. Television is considered to be the main source of news and information for most people and as the main channel of communication between politicians and citizens, especially at election time. Television is also the largest single channel of advertising in nearly all countries, and this has helped to confirm its mass entertainment functions [33] .

Television has been continuously evolving, and it would be risky to try to summarize its features in terms of communicative purposes and effects. Initially the main genre innovation of television stemmed from its capacity to transmit many pictures and sound live and thus act as a “window on the world” in real time. A second important feature of television is the sense of intimacy and personal involvement that it seems able to cultivate between the spectator and presenter or the actors and participants on screen.

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