Discrimination of 11 Chinese Materia Medica from Umbelliferae by Electronic Nose
Qingmao Fang, Mei Zhang, Yuxia Yang, Xianjian Zhou, Hongfeng Jia, Ping Fu, Luqi Huang
DOI: 10.4236/cm.2011.24024   PDF   HTML     4,310 Downloads   7,604 Views   Citations


In this paper, electronic nose (E-nose) was used to discriminate the 11 Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) from Umbelliferae by the difference of their odors. The E-nose generated data were analyzed by discriminant function analysis (DFA) and the responses of 18 sensors of E-nose were evaluated by CA analysis. Results showed that a rapid evaluation of complex response of the samples could be obtained, in combination with DFA, SQC and the CA analysis of the E-nose was given better results in the recognition values of the odor of the 11 CMM. All the 11 CMM could be distinguished by E-nose coupled with DFA, sensor 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 13 and 15 were found to be able to better discriminate between the CMM samples. The CMM from Umbelliferae produced from different areas and processed with different methods could be distinguished by the E-nose, too. The results of the similarity of fingerprints of the E-nose are fitted with the TCM records about the property (yaoxing), channel tropism (guijing), function and usage of the CMM. The E-nose is a technology that can reflect the holistic odor of a CMM and is relevant to the TCM doctor’s practical identification. The odor of CMM can be expressed by objective data instead of subjective sense by human nose. Based on the sensor`s intensity of E-nose, the fingerprint of a CMM can be established, too. Although the E-nose has so many advantages, only use E-nose technology is not enough to control the quality of a CMM. It must be combined with the other macroscopic discriminating technology, such as the E-tongue, the E-eye, to have a holistic evaluation of a CMM.

Share and Cite:

Q. Fang, M. Zhang, Y. Yang, X. Zhou, H. Jia, P. Fu and L. Huang, "Discrimination of 11 Chinese Materia Medica from Umbelliferae by Electronic Nose," Chinese Medicine, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 143-153. doi: 10.4236/cm.2011.24024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] T. G. Kang, “Authentication of Chinese Medicines,” China Press of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 2003.
[2] Z. Z. Zhao, Z. T. Liang and P. Guo, “Macroscopic Identi?cation of Chinese Medicinal Materials: Traditional Experiences and Modern Understanding,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 134, No. 3, 2011, pp. 556-564. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.018
[3] X. Q. Chang and L. X. Ding, “Handbook of Analysis of the Active Components of Chinese Marteria Medcia,” School Press, Beijing, 2002.
[4] S. P. Li, J. Zhao and B. Yang, “Strategies for Quality Control of Chinese Medicines,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2011, pp. 802-809. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2010.12.011
[5] Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission, “Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China,” China Medical Science and Technology Press, Beijing, 2010.
[6] C. X. Zhang , J. C. Bao, X. G. Li and Y. L. Zheng, “HPLC Determination of the Amount of Ginsenosides in Different Part of Panax Ginseng C. A. Mey and P. Quinquefolius L. and P. Notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen,” Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Vol. 10, 2005, pp. 1190-1194.
[7] S. L. Hu, “Illustration of the Chinese Herbs in the Place of the Genuine,” Shandong Publishing House of Science and Technology, Jinan, 1998.
[8] P. N. Burtlett, J. M. Elliott and J. W. Gardner, “Electronic Noses and Their Application in the Food Industry,” Food Technology, Vol. 51, 1997, pp. 44-48.
[9] M. Laureati, S. Buratti, A. Bassoli, G. Borgonovo and E. Pagliarini, “Discrimination and Characterization of Three Cultivars of Perilla Frutescens by Means of Sensory Descriptors and Electronic Nose and Tongue Analysis,” Food Research International, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2010, pp. 959-964. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2010.01.024
[10] R. Baby, M. Cabezas, E. Castro, R. Filip and N. E. Wals?e de Reca, “Quality Control of Medicinal Plants with an Electronic Nose,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 106, No. 1, 2005, pp. 24-28. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2004.05.049
[11] H. S. Peng, M. E. Cheng, L. Zhang, Y. Yao and B. X. Han, “Analysis Odor of Rhizoma Aatractylodis Macrocephalae Based on Electronic Nose,” Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Vol. 33, 2010, pp. 503-506.
[12] A. D. Daurat, “Application Note of Alpha M.O.S-20 at 04: QC of Chinese Medicine via Fingerprint Analysis,” 2004. http://www.insung.net/cgi/pdf-new/21/AT04
[13] B. X. Han, N. F. Chen, X. K. Zhou and S. Wang, “Electronic Nose for Odor Analysis of Radix Peucedani with Different Growth Time,” Food Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2010, pp. 132-134.
[14] T. Ye, C. Jin and X. H. Xiao, “Can Odors of TCM Be Captured by Electronic Nose? The Novel Quality Control Method for Musk by Electronic Nose Coupled with Chemometrics,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1239-1244. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2011.03.018
[15] A. H. Gomez, J. Wang, G. Hu and A. G. Pereira, “Electronic Nose Technique Potential Monitoring Mandarin Maturity,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2006, pp. 347-353. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2005.03.090
[16] J. H. Fu, S. C. Li, Y. Dong, W. Z. Wang, Y. Y. Wang and Z. X. Yu, “The Four Classic of Traditional Chinese Medicine,” Ancient China Medical Material Press, Beijing, 1996.
[17] Q. Y. Zhang, S. P. Zhang, C. S. Xie, D. W. Zeng, C. Q. Fan, D. F. Li and Z. K. Bai, “Characterization of Chinese Vinegars by Electronic Nose,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 119, No. 2, 2006, pp. 538-546. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2006.01.007
[18] M. Otto, “Chemometrics: Statistics and Computer Application in Analytical Chemistry,” John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1999.
[19] C. Apetrei, I. M. Apetrei, S. Villanueva, J. A. de Saja, F. Gutierrez-Rosales and M. L. Rodriguez-Mendez, “Combination of an E-Nose, an E-Tongue and an E-Eye for the Characterisation of Olive Oils with Different Degree of Bitterness,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 663, No. 1, 2010, pp. 91-97. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2010.01.034

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.