Zinc Status in Virological Controlled Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infected Patients
Carlos Tornero, Consuelo Lapuebla, Ana Ventura, Julian Diaz, Maricarmen Mafe
DOI: 10.4236/wja.2011.14026   PDF    HTML     4,297 Downloads   7,087 Views  


Zinc (Zn) is a key micronutrient for correct immune function and its deficiency correction has been shown to be useful in HIV-infected but most of the studies included a significant proportion of patients without adequate virological control. It would be interesting to establish the prevalence, associated factors and clinical repercussions of Zn deficiency in patients with good virological to assessing the usefulness of Zn monitoring in the routine follow-up of well controlled HIV-infected patients, based on the colorimetric techniques commonly used in daily clinical practice. We included the first 100 patients that met the requirements of HAART and viremia levels under 200 copies for at least 6 consecutive months, with no active illicit drug use, active infections or weight loss of any cause during the previous 6 months. Serum Zn concentration was measured using a colorimetric assay (Sentinel Diagnostics®) adapted to the Cobas 8000 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics). The Zn values showed a normal distribution with a mean concentration of 88.7 µg/dl (SD 23.3) and were found to be decreased in 13 patients and in 6 subjects were below 61 µg/dl. Both the simple statistical analysis and the multivariate regression model only identified a significant effect for age and alcohol consumption. In sum an important number of HIV-infected with effective and prolonged HAART and no evidence of active infections or other associated factor show diminished serum Zn concentrations. The inclusion of at least occasional Zn determinations should be considered in the regular follow-up evaluations of HIV-infected patients.

Share and Cite:

C. Tornero, C. Lapuebla, A. Ventura, J. Diaz and M. Mafe, "Zinc Status in Virological Controlled Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infected Patients," World Journal of AIDS, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2011, pp. 182-184. doi: 10.4236/wja.2011.14026.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Hambridge, “Human Zinc Deficiency,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 130, Suppl. 5S, 2000, pp. 1344S-1349S.
[2] E. Mochegiani and M. Muzzioli, “Therapeutic Application of Zinc in Human Immunodeficiency Virus against Opportunistic Infections,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 130, 2000, Suppl. 5S, pp. 1424S-1431S.
[3] C. Y. Jones, A. M. Tang, J. E. Forrester, et al., “Micronutrient Levels and HIV Disease Status in HIV-Infected Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the Nutrition for Health Living Cohort,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2006, pp. 475-482. doi:10.1097/01.qai.0000243096.27029.fe
[4] M. K. Bann, A. Campa, S. Lai, H. Lai and J. B. Page, “Zinc Status in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in Illicit Drug Use,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 37, Suppl. 2, 2003, pp. S117-S123. doi:10.1086/375875
[5] J. P. Zarski, J. Arnaud, H. Labadie, et al., “Serum and Tissue Concentrations of Zinc after Oral Supplementation in Chronic Alcoholics with or without Cirrhosis,” Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, Vol. 11, No. 12, 1987, pp. 856-860.
[6] M. K. Baum, G. Shor-Posner, Y. Lu, et al., “Micronutrients and HIV-1 Disease Progression,” AIDS, Vol. 9, No. 9, 1995, pp. 1051-1056. doi:10.1097/00002030-199509000-00010
[7] E. Mocchegiani, M. Muzzioli, R. Gaetti, et al., “Contribution of Zinc to Reduce CD4+ Risk Factor for “Severe” Infection Relapse in Aging: Parallelism with HIV,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1999, pp. 271-281. doi:10.1016/S0192-0561(99)00009-0
[8] E. Mocchegiani, S. Veccia, F. Ancarani, et al., “Benefit of Oral Zinc Supplementation as an Adjunct to Zidovudine (AZT) Therapy against Opportunistic Infections in AIDS,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology, Vol. 17, No. 9, 1995, pp. 719-727. doi:10.1016/0192-0561(95)00060-F
[9] M. K. Bann, L. Shenghan, S. Sales, J. B. Page and A. Campa, “Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Zinc Supplementation to Prevent Immunological Failure in HIV Infected Adults,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 50, No. 12, 2010, pp. 1653-1660. doi:10.1086/652864
[10] B. L?nerdal, “Dietary Factors Influencing Zinc Absorption,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 130, 2000, pp. 1378S- 1383S.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.