Sensitivity of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) to various postemergence herbicides
Nader Soltani, Christy Shropshire, Peter H. Sikkema
DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.24058   PDF   HTML     5,388 Downloads   8,782 Views   Citations


There are a limited number of herbicide options available for durum wheat production in Ontario, Canada. Four field studies were conducted in Ontario, Canada over a three year period (2008, 2009 and 2010) to evaluate the sensitivity of spring planted durum wheat to post-emergence (POST) applications of dichlorprop/2,4-D, dicamba/ MCPA/mecoprop, clopyralid, bromoxynil/MCPA, pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + MCPA amine, fluroxypyr + MCPA ester, tralkoxydim and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl/safener at the manufacturers’ recommended dose and twice that dose. Visible injury in durum wheat were 0 to 2.4% with dichlorprop/2,4-D, 0 to 6% with dicamba/MCPA/mecoprop, 0 to 0.4% injury with clopyralid, 0 to 1.4% injury with bromoxynil/MCPA, 0 to 3.5% with pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil, 0 to 5% with thifensulfuron/tribenuron + MCPA amine, 0 to 2.6% with fluroxypyr + MCPA ester, 0 to 5% with tralkoxydim and 0.4% to 8% with fenoxaprop-pethyl/safener at various evaluation dates (1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after treatment). Durum wheat height was decreased as much as 5% with dicamba/ MCPA/mecoprop, 4% with pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil and 6% with fenoxaprop-pethyl/safener but was not affected with other herbicides evaluated. There was no decrease in durum wheat yield with the herbicides evaluated.

Share and Cite:

Soltani, N. , Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P. (2011) Sensitivity of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) to various postemergence herbicides. Agricultural Sciences, 2, 451-456. doi: 10.4236/as.2011.24058.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Canada Food Inspection Agency [CFIA] (2006) The Biology of Triticum turgidum ssp. Durum (Durum Wheat). Ottawa, 16.
[2] International Grains Council (2002) World grains statistics. 13-17.
[3] Hageman L.H. and Behrens, R. (1981) Response of small-grain cultivars to chlorsulfuron. Weed Science, 29, 414-420.
[4] Xie, H.S., Quick, W.A. and Hsiao, A.I. (1994) Spring cereal response to imazamethabenz and fenoxaprop-p- ethyl as influenced by environment. Weed Technology, 8, 713-716.
[5] Lemerle, D., Hinkley, R.B., Kidd, C.R. and Leys, A.R. (1986) Symptoms of injury caused by herbicides in wheat and barley. Advisory Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, New South Wales, 4, 1-14.
[6] Rinella, M.J., Kells, J.J. and Ward, R.W. (2001) Response of “Wakefield” winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) to dicamba. Weed Technology, 15, 523-529. doi:10.1614/0890-037X(2001)015[0523:ROWWWT]2.0.CO;2
[7] Schroeder, J. and Banks, P.A. (1989) Soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) response to dicamba and dicamba plus 2, 4-D. Weed Technology, 3, 67-71.
[8] Sikkema, P.H., Brown, L., Shropshire, C. and Soltani, N. (2007) Responses of three types of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to spring-applied post-emergence herbicides. Crop Protection, 26, 715-720. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2006.06.010
[9] Tottman, D.R. (1980) Varietal differences in the tolerance of cereals to herbicides. Winter Wheat, Crop Conference, 68.
[10] Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs [OMAFRA] (2010) Guide to weed control. Publication 75, Toronto.
[11] Senseman, S.A. (2007) Herbicide handbook. 9th Edition, Weed Science Society of America, Champaign, 458.
[12] Statistical Analysis Systems [SAS] (2008) The SAS System for Windows, Release 9.2. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Cary.
[13] Swan, D.G. (1975) Necessity for proper timing of application of 2,4-D on winter wheat. Down to Earth, 31, 23-25.
[14] Wicks, G.A., Klein, R.N., Martin, A.R., Lyon, D.J. (1999) Annual broadleaf weed control in winter wheat. Nebraska Cooperative Extension Report G95-1241-A, Nebraska.
[15] Bailey, W.A, Wilson H.P, Brann D.E. and Griffey, C.A. (2004) Wheat cultivar tolerance to AE F13006003. Weed Technology, 18, 881-886. doi:10.1614/WT-03-010R
[16] Martin, D.A., Miller, S.D. and Alley, H.P. (1989) Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) response to herbicides applied at three growth stages. Weed Technology, 3, 90-94.
[17] Quimby, P.C.Jr. and Nalewaja, J.D. (1966) Effect of dicamba on wheat and wild buckwheat at various stages of development. Weeds, 14, 229-232. doi:10.2307/4040919
[18] Sikkema, P.H., Shropshire, C. and Soltani, N. (2008) Tolerance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare), oats (Avena sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) to saflufenacil. Crop Protection, 27, 1495-1497. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2008.07.009
[19] Soltani, N., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2006) Responses of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to autumn applied post-emergence herbicides. Crop Protection, 25, 346-349. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2005.05.012
[20] Soltani, N., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2011) Responses of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare), oats (Avena sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to mesotrione. Crop Protection, 30, 849-853. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2011.03.023
[21] Ivany, J.A., Nass, H.G. and Sanderson, J.B. (1990) Effect of time of application of herbicides on yield of three winter wheat cultivars. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 70, 605-609. doi:10.4141/cjps90-076
[22] Tottman, D.R. (1982) The effects of broad-leaved weed herbicides applied to cereal crops at different growth stages. Aspects of Applied Biology I: Broad-Leaved Weeds and Their Control in Cereals, University of Warwick, Warwick, 201-210.
[23] Derksen, D.A., Kirkland, K.J., McLennan, B.R., Hunter, J.H., Loeppky, H.A. and Bowren. K.E. (1989) Influence of fall and spring herbicide application on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. “Norstar”). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 69, 881-888. doi:10.4141/cjps89-102
[24] Tottman, D.R. (1978). The effects of a dicamba herbicide mixture on the grain yield components of winter wheat. Weed Research, 18, 335-339. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3180.1978.tb01170.x

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.