Factorial Validation of Warr’s (1990) Well-Being Measure: A Sample Study on Police Officers
Sónia P. Gonçalves, José Neves
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27108   PDF   HTML     7,248 Downloads   12,198 Views   Citations


The purpose of this study was to test the factorial validity of the job-related affective well-being scale—the IWP Multi-Affect Indicator. The sample was composed of 1466 police officers and collected through self-report questionnaires. With the objective of validating the factorial structure of the IWP Multi-Affect Indicator, several models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. The results supported a four-factor structure: anxiety, comfort, depression and enthusiasm, as well as a five-factor structure including the same four factors plus a second-order factor called global affective well-being.

Share and Cite:

Gonçalves, S. & Neves, J. (2011). Factorial Validation of Warr’s (1990) Well-Being Measure: A Sample Study on Police Officers. Psychology, 2, 706-712. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.27108.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Bindl, U. K., Warr, P. B., Parker, S. K., & Inceoglu, I. (submitted for presentation). Multiple patterns of affect-behavior associations. Annual SIOP Conference, Atlanta.
[2] Bollen, K. A. (1990). A comment on model evaluation and modifica- tion. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 181-185. doi:10.1207/s15327906mbr2502_5
[3] Briggs, S. R., & Cheek, J. M. (1986). The role of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of personality scales. Journal of Per- sonality, 54, 106-148. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1986.tb00391.x
[4] Chambel, M. J., & Curral, L. (2005). Stress in academic life: Work characteristics as predictors of student well-being and performance. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54, 135-147. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00200.x
[5] Cifre, E., & Salanova, M. (2002). Multidimensionality and bipolarity of a Spanish Version of Warr’s (1990) well-being measure. The Journal of Psychology, 136, 69-74. doi:10.1080/00223980209604139
[6] Daniels, K. (2000). Measure of five aspects of affective well-being. Human Relations, 53, 275-294.
[7] Daniels, K., Brough, P., Guppy, A., Peters-Bean, K. M., & Weather- stone, L. (1997). A note on a modification to Warr’s measures of work-related affective well-being. Journal of Occupational and Or- ganizational Psychology, 70, 129-138. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.1997.tb00638.x
[8] Hair, J. F. Jr. et al. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
[9] Howieson, W. B. (2008). A quantitative evaluation of the reformulated 1996 path-goal theory of work unit leadership via structural equa- tion modeling. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
[10] Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in co- variance structure analysis: Coventional criteria versus new alterna- tives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118
[11] Keyes, C. L. M. (2005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Con- sulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 539-548. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.539
[12] M?kikangas, A., Feldt, T., & Kinnunen, U. (2007). Warr’s scale of job-related affective well-being: A longitudinal examination of its structure and relationships with work characteristics. Work & Stress, 21, 197-219. doi:10.1080/02678370701662151
[13] Mar?co, J. (2010). Structural equation analysis: Theoretical founda- tions, software & applications. Pêro Pinheiro: Report Number, Lda.
[14] Marsh, H. W., Kit-Tai, H., & Wen, Z. L. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320- 341. doi:10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2
[15] Muchinsky, P. M. (2000). Emotions in the workplace: The neglect of organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 21, 801-805. doi:10.1002/1099-1379(200011)21:7<801::AID-JOB999>3.0.CO;2-A
[16] Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Person- ality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161-1178. doi:10.1037/h0077714
[17] Sevastos, P., Smith, L., & Cordery, J. L. (1992). Evidence on the reli- ability and construct validity of Warr’s (1990) well-being and mental health measures. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psy- chology, 65, 33-49. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.1992.tb00482.x
[18] SPSS (2006). Guide on how to use the AMOS. Lisboa: SPPSS.
[19] Van Horn, J. E., Taris, T. W., Schaufeli, W. B., & Schreurs, P. J. G. (2004). The structure of occupational well-being: A study among Dutch teachers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 365-375. doi:10.1348/0963179041752718
[20] Warr, P., & Parker, S. (2010). IWP multi-affect Indicator. Sheffield: Institute of Work Psychology, University of Sheffield. Paper no published.
[21] Warr, P. (1987). Work, unemployment, and mental health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[22] Warr, P. (1990). The measurement of well-being and other aspects of mental health. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 193-210. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00521.x
[23] Warr, P., Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1979). Scales for the measurement of some work attitudes and aspects of psychological well-being. Jour- nal of Occupational Psychology, 52, 129-148. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.1979.tb00448.x

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.