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Evidence for pentagonal symmetry in living and model cellular systems

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DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.310112    4,350 Downloads   8,398 Views  
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ABSTRACT

Microscope observations of normal human ke- ratinocytes (NHK) propagated in a serum-free medium reveal a high frequency (>70%) of pentagonally-shaped colonies over a wide range of colony sizes that persist over many sequential cell generations. NHK colonies derived from sin- gle cell isolates also display pentagonal symme- try as confirmed by a photographic technique known as “Markham Rotation”. The generality of pentagonal cellular morphology was extended to observations in situ of pentagonally-shaped basal layer epidermal cells of normal human epidermis, monolayer cultures of normal and immortalized keratinocytes, several different ch- ick embryo cells, and in previously published photographs. Statistical methods were applied that differentiate planar close-packing of polygonal configurations observed in living cellular system from several examples of non-living cellular aggregates that were produced spontaneously in nature or in the laboratory under defined physico-chemical conditions.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Wille, J. (2011) Evidence for pentagonal symmetry in living and model cellular systems. Natural Science, 3, 866-883. doi: 10.4236/ns.2011.310112.

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