An Analysis of Ambient Air Quality Conditions Over Delhi, India From 2004 to 2009
Jhumoor Biswas, Era Upadhyay, Mugdha Nayak, Anil Kumar Yadav
DOI: 10.4236/acs.2011.14024   PDF    HTML     6,833 Downloads   13,233 Views   Citations


We analyzed 1-hour, 8-hour and 24-hour averaged criteria pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, PM22.5, and PM10) during 2004 - 2009 at three observational sites i.e. Income Tax Office (ITO), Sirifort and Delhi College of Engineering (DCE) in Delhi, India. The analysis reveals increased pollutant concentrations at the urban ITO site as compared to the other two sites, suggesting the need to better locate hot spots in designing the monitoring network. There is also significant year to year variation in the design value trends of criteria pollutants at these three sites, which may be attributed to meteorological variations and local-level emission fluctuations. Correlations among criteria pollutants vary annually and spatially from site to site, indicating the heterogeneous nature of air mix. The annual ratios of CO/NOx are considerably higher than SO2/NOx confirming that vehicular source emissions are the primary contributors to air pollution in Delhi. The seasonal analysis of criteria pollutants reveals relatively higher concentrations in winter because of limited pollutant dispersion and lower concentrations during the monsoon period (rainy season). The diurnal averages of criteria pollutants reveal that vehicular emissions strongly influence temporal variations of these pollutants. Weekdays and weekend diurnal averages do not show noticeable differences.

Share and Cite:

J. Biswas, E. Upadhyay, M. Nayak and A. Yadav, "An Analysis of Ambient Air Quality Conditions Over Delhi, India From 2004 to 2009," Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2011, pp. 214-224. doi: 10.4236/acs.2011.14024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. S. Pandey, K. Rakesh and S. Devotta, “Health Risks of NO2, SPM and SO2 in Delhi (India),” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 39, No. 36, 2005, pp. 6868-6874. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.08.004
[2] MOEF, “White Paper on Air Pollution on Delhi with an Action Plan,” Ministry of Environment and Forests, Delhi, 1997.
[3] K. Varshney and P. K. Padhy, “Total Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Environment of Delhi,” Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, Vol. 48, 1998, pp. 448-453.
[4] K. Srivastava and V. K. Jain, “A Study to Characterize the Influence of Outdoor SPM and Metals on Indoor Environments in Delhi,” Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2005, pp. 222-231.
[5] P. Goyal and Sidhartha, “Present Scenario of Air Quality in Delhi: A Case Study of CNG Implementation,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, 2003, pp. 5423-5431.
[6] R. Khaiwal, E. Wauters, S. Tyagi, M. Suman and R. V. Grieken, “Assessment of Air Quality after the Implementation of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as Fuel in Public Transport in Delhi, India,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 115, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 405-417. doi:10.1007/s10661-006-7051-5
[7] V. Kathuria, “Impact of CNG on Vehicular Pollution in Delhi: A Note. Transportation Research Part D,” Transport and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 5, 2004, pp. 409-417. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2004.05.003
[8] S. Mukherjee and V. Kathuria, “Is Economic Growth Sustainable? Environmental Quality of Indian States after 1991,” International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2006, pp. 477-493.
[9] A. Chaloulakou, P. Kassomenos, N. Spyrellis and P. Koutrakis, “Measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 Particle Concentrations in Athens, Greece,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2003, pp. 649-660. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00898-1
[10] S. T. Rao, I. G. Zurbenko, R. Neagu, P. S. Porter, J. Y. Ku and R. F. Henry, “Space and Time Scales in Ambient Ozone Data,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 78, No. 10, 1997, pp. 2153-2166. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2153:SATSIA>2.0.CO;2
[11] V. P. Aneja, A. Agarwal, P. A. Roelle, S. B. Phillips, Q. Tong, N. Watkins and R. Yablonsky, “Measurements and Analysis of Criteria Pollutants in New Delhi, India,” Environment International, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2001, pp. 35-42. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(01)00051-4
[12] V. P. Aneja, B. E. Hartsell, D. S. Kim and D. Grosjean, “Peroxyacetyl Nitrate in Atlanta, GA: Comparison and Analysis of Ambient Data for Suburban and Downtown Locations,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Vol. 49, 1999, pp. 174-185.
[13] Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Data. http://cpcb.
[14] S. Guttikunda, “Photochemistry of Air Pollution in Delhi, India: A Monitoring Based Analysis,” SIM-Air Working Paper Series, Vol. 25, 2009a, pp. 1-12.
[15] J. M. Jones, C. Hogrefe, R. F. Henry, J. Ku and G. Sistla, “An Assessment of the Sensitivity and Reliability of the Relative Reduction Factor Approach in the Development of 8-hr Ozone Attainment Plans,” Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, Vol. 55, 2005, pp. 13-19.
[16] D. Parrish, M. Trainer, M. P. Buhr, B. A. Watkins and F. C. Fehsenfeld, “Carbon Monoxide Concentrations and Their Relation to Concentrations of Total Reactive Oxidized Nitrogen at Two Rural U. S. Sites,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 96, No. D5, 1991, pp. 9309- 9320. doi:10.1029/91JD00047
[17] S. Gokhale and M. Khare, “Vehicle Wake Factor for Heterogeneous Traffic in Urban Environments,” International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2007, pp. 97-105. doi:10.1504/IJEP.2007.014505
[18] CSE, “Delhi Is Reeling under High Levels of Deadly Ozone, Says Latest CSE Analysis,” Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 2009.
[19] CSE, “The Smokescreen of Lies: Myths and Facts about CNG, Right to Clean Air Campaign Team,” Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 2001.
[20] R. Gurjar, J. A. Van Aardenne, J. Lelieveld and M. Mohan, “Emissions Estimates and Trends (1990-2000) for Megacity Delhi and Implications,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, No. 33, 2004, pp. 5663-5681. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.05.057
[21] R. Gurjar, T. M. Butler, M. G. Lawrence and J. Lelieveld, “Evaluation of Emissions and Air Quality in Megacities,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 7, 2002, pp. 1593-1606. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.048
[22] S. Guttikunda, “Air Quality Management in Delhi, India: Then, Now and Next. Air Quality Management in Delhi, India,” SIM-Air Working Paper Series, Vol. 22, 2009b, pp. 1-8.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.