Effects of Two Anti-TNF-α Compounds: Etanercept and 5-Ethyl-1-Phenyl-2-(1H)-Pyridone on Secreted and Cell-Associated TNF-α In Vitro
Ken J. Grattendick, James M. Nakashima, Shri N. Giri
DOI: 10.4236/pp.2011.24031   PDF    HTML     4,783 Downloads   9,657 Views   Citations


Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a potent inflammatory cytokine and its exaggerated production has been implicated in acute, chronic and autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous anti-TNF-α agents have been developed to reduce its circulating levels either by neutralizing, binding or inhibiting the de novo synthesis with the aim of achieving desirable therapeutic effects. In the present study, we compared the effects of a protein-based anti-TNF-α drug, etanercept, and a non-protein-based anti-TNF-α small molecule, 5-ethyl-1-phenyl-2-(1H) pyridone (5-EPP), on the LPS-stimulated secretion of TNF-α in the medium and TNF-α associated with the THP-1 cells in vitro. Both drugs had marked concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on the LPS-stimulated secretion of TNF-α. However, their effects on the LPS-stimulated cell-associated TNF-α were diametrically opposed to each other. For instance, etanercept further increased the level by up to 12-fold, whereas 5-EPP inhibited the level in a dose dependent manner. In addition, 5-EPP caused a significant reduction in the elevated level of cell associated TNF-α caused by LPS + etanercept. The differences in the levels of cell-associated TNF-α as reported in the present study may partly explain the adverse effects of some protein-based anti-TNF-α drugs including etanercept as opposed to a non-protein-based anti-TNF-α drug such as pirfenidone, a structural analogue of 5-EPP, for treatment of some TNF-α mediated diseases. It was concluded from the findings of this study that drugs which elevate the levels of cell associated-TNF-α will potentially have more adverse events even after reducing the secreted levels of TNF-α than the drugs which reduce both the secreted and cell-associated TNF-α levels.

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K. Grattendick, J. Nakashima and S. Giri, "Effects of Two Anti-TNF-α Compounds: Etanercept and 5-Ethyl-1-Phenyl-2-(1H)-Pyridone on Secreted and Cell-Associated TNF-α In Vitro," Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 238-247. doi: 10.4236/pp.2011.24031.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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