Carbon Storage in Agroecosystems: A Case Study of the Cocoa Based Agroforestry in Ogbese Forest Reserve, Ekiti State, Nigeria

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.28123   PDF   HTML     5,277 Downloads   9,372 Views   Citations


Large areas of the indigenous tropical forests in the southwestern part of Nigeria are being converted into agricultural lands and this has been reported to have serious implications for biodiversity and the environment. Cocoa based agroforestry is one of the common agricultural practices in this region and comparative information on the carbon storage capacity of the cocoa agroforests is generally lacking. In this study the above-ground carbon storage and partitioning in a protected primary forest were evaluated and compared with those of the two categories of cocoa agroforests (sparse and dense) identified in the area. Above-ground biomass accumulation and carbon stock varied significantly with land use type, with the primary rainforest having the highest values and sparse cocoa agroforests having the lowest. A reduction in above-ground carbon stock of 89.82% and 71.20% was observed 10 years after conversion of tropical rainforest to sparse and dense cocoa agroforests respectively.

Share and Cite:

D. Oke and A. Olatiilu, "Carbon Storage in Agroecosystems: A Case Study of the Cocoa Based Agroforestry in Ogbese Forest Reserve, Ekiti State, Nigeria," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 8, 2011, pp. 1069-1075. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.28123.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] [1] J. T. Kiehl and K. E. Trenberth, “Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 78, No. 2, 1997, pp. 197-208. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<0197:EAGMEB>2.0.CO;2
[2] IPCC, “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Summary for Policymakers,” The IPCC 4th Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007.
[3] IPCC, “Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability,” Contribution of Working Group II to the 3rd Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 2001.
[4] United Nations, “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC),” 2006.
[5] N. H. Ravindranath, B. S. Somashekhar and M. Gadgil, “Carbon Flow in India Forests,” Climatic Change, Vol. 35, 1997, pp. 297-320. doi:10.1023/A:1005303405404
[6] A. Chhabra and V. K. Dadhwal, “Assessment of Major Pools and Fluxes of Carbon in Indian Forests,” Climate Change, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2004, pp. 341-360. doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000025740.50082.e7
[7] R. K. Dixon, “Agroforestry Systems: Sources of Sinks of Greenhouse Gases?” Agroforestry Systems, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1995, pp. 99-116. doi:10.1007/BF00711719
[8] D. O. Oke and K. A. Odebiyi, “Traditional Cocoa-Based Agroforestry and Forest Species Conservation in Ondo State, Nigeria,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Vol. 122, No. 3, 2007, pp. 305-311. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2007.01.022
[9] B. Duguma, J. Gockowski and J. Bakala, “Small Holder Cacao (Theobroma Cacao Linn). Cultivation in Agroforestry Systems of West and Central Africa: Challenges and Opportunities,” Agroforestry Systems, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2001, pp. 177-188. doi:10.1023/A:1010747224249
[10] P. T. Alvim, “Ecological and Physiological Determinants of Cocoa Yield,” Proceedings of the 5th International Cocoa Research Conference, Ibadan, 1-9 September 1979, pp. 25-38.
[11] W. V. Hutcheon, “Physociological Aspects of Cocoa Agronomy,” Proceedings of the 5th International Cocoa Research Conference, Ibadan, 1-9 September 1979, pp 39-48.
[12] Y. A. Olaniran, “Focus on Light Climate in Cocoa Production,” Proceedings of 5th International Cocoa Research Conference, Ibadan, 1-9 September 1979, pp. 271-277
[13] L. Zapfack, S. Engwald, B. Sonke, G. Achoundong and B. A. Madong, “The Impact of Land Use Conversion on Plant Biodiversity in the Forest Zone of Cameroon,” Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 11 No. 11, 2002, pp. 2047-2061. doi:10.1023/A:1020861925294
[14] G. Schroth, A. B. Gustavo, C. A. da Fonseca, C. Harvey, H. L. Gascon, A. M. Vasconcelos and N. Izac, “Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes,” Island Press, Washington DC, 2004, p. 523.
[15] J. S. Oguntoyinbo, “Climate, Precipitation and Radiation,” In: K. M. Babour, et al., Eds., Nigeria in Maps, Hodder and Stoughton, London.
[16] P. Snowdown, J. Raison, H. Keith, P. Ritson, P. Grierson, M. Adams, K. Montagu, H. Bi, W. Burrows and D. Eamus, “Protocol for Sampling Tree and Stand Biomass,” National Carbon Accounting System, Technical Report No. 31, March 2002.
[17] B. C. Husch, C. I. Miller and T. W. Beens, “Forest Mensuration,” 3rd Edition, Wiley, New York, 1982, p. 402.
[18] S. Brown, “Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests,” FAO. Forest Paper 134, A Forest Resources Assessment Publication, Rome, 1997, p. 55.
[19] J. Stephens, “Growing Interest in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) for Climate Change Mitigation,” Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2006, pp. 4-13.
[20] S. Brown and A. E. Lugo, “The Storage and Production of Organic Matter in Tropical Forests and Their Role in the Global Carbon Cycle,” Biotropica, Vol. 14, 1982, pp. 161-187. doi:10.2307/2388024
[21] M. G. R. Cannell and R. Milne, “Carbon Pools and Sequestration in Forest Ecosystems in Britain” Forestry, Vol. 68, No. 4, 1995, pp. 361-378. doi:10.1093/forestry/68.4.361
[22] R. K. Dixon, S. Brown, R. A. Houghton, A. M. Solomon, M. C. Trexler and J. Wisniewski, “Carbon Pools and Flux of Global Forest Ecosystems,” Science, Vol. 263, No. 3654, 1994, pp. 185-190. doi:10.1126/science.263.5144.185
[23] D. D. Richter , D. Markewitz, J. K. Dunsomb, C. G. Wells, A. Stuanes, H. L. Allen, B. Ureego, K. Harrison and G. Bonani, “Carbon Cycling in a Loblobby Pine Forest: Implication for the Missing Carbon Sink and for the Concept of Soil,” In: W. W. McFee and J. L. Kelly, Eds., Carbon Forms and Function in Forest Soils, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1995, pp. 223-251.
[24] P. Schroeder, “Carbon Storage Potential of Short Rotation Tropical Tree Plantations,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 50, No. 1-2, 1992, pp. 31-41. doi:10.1016/0378-1127(92)90312-W
[25] M. E. Isaac, V. R. Timmer and S. J. Quashie-Sam, “Shade Tree Effects in an 8-Year-Old Cocoa Agroforestry System: Biomass and Nutrient Diagnosis of Theobroma Cacao by Vector Analysis,” Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2007, pp. 155-165. doi:10.1007/s10705-006-9081-3
[26] I. E. Henson, “Comparative Ecophysiology of Oil Palm and Tropical Rain Forest,” In: S. Gurmit, K. H. Lim, L. Teo and K. Lee, Eds., Oil Palm and the Environment, Malaysian Oil Palm Growers’ Council, Kuala Lumpur, 1999, pp. 9-39.
[27] S. Naimatu, “Estimating Above-Ground Biomass and Carbon Stock of Forest Cover Using Multispectral Satellite Images in Lore Lindu National Park-Central Sulawesi,” Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, 2007.
[28] G. Kirsfianti, C. W. Yuliana and L. Mega, “Potential of Agroforestry and Plantation Systems in Indonesia for Carbon Stocks: An Economic Perspective,” Working Paper CC14, ACIAR Project ASEM 2002/066.
[29] G. L. Smiley and J. Kroschel, “Temporal Change in Carbon Stocks of Cocoa-Gliricidia Agroforests in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia,” Agroforestry Systems, Vol. 73, No. 3, 2008, pp. 219-231. doi:10.1007/s10457-008-9144-3
[30] S. Brown, “Tropical Forests and the Global Carbon Cycle: Estimating State and Change in Biomass Density,” In: M. Apps and D. Price, Eds., Forest Ecosystems, Forest Management and the Global Carbon Cycle, NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996, pp. 135-144.
[31] I. F. Brown, L. A. Martinelli, W. W. Thomas, M. Z. Moreira, C. A. C. Ferreira and R. A. Victoria, “Uncertainty in the Biomass of Amazonian Forests—An Example from Rondonia, Brazil,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 75, No. 1-3, 1995, pp. 175-189. doi:10.1016/0378-1127(94)03512-U
[32] S. Brown and A. E. Lugo, “Aboveground Biomass Estimates for Tropical Moist Forests of the Brazilian Amazon,” Interciencia, Vol. 17, 1992, pp. 8-18.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.