"return57"> (Bilen et al., 2013) , the reason why the fear of crime, which is relatively high in Beşiktaş District, is lower in the study area, the core of Beşiktaş, is because the area is vivacious and used every hour of the day. Also, the common mixed usage in the area is another factor to decrease fear.

The streets and areas where the participants feel unsafe are usually overcrowded hotspots with widespread commercial business-service space usage, isolated streets, and the streets with stairs obstructing escape routes in case of a crime event (Appendix 9 and Appendix 10). It can be concluded that the obtained data in this sense is consistent and have parallels with the space features creating unsafety identified in the previous literature studies (Ergun & Yirmibeşoğlu, 2015; Tulloch, 2000; Smolej & Kivivuari, 2006) .

The axial map of Sinanpaşa Neighborhood and surroundings has been created and the selection choice, integration and connectivity values have been examined. Accordingly, it is determined that the streets with high or medium level of choice and global integration values in the study area are places with higher levels of fear of crime. Streets with high values of integration and connectivity are easily accessible. Therefore, they are crowded, active and preferred by more people. This condition causes a development of an environment conducive to crime events in the street. Due to this, it is significant that the users indicate a fear in the streets with high values of connectivity and integration within the study area. Plenty of studies have been and are being done about fear of crime around the world. However, in Turkey, even though there have been studies by the government about identifying crime rates, not much has been said about the topic of fear of crime and there have not been many studies about this subject. When experienced at high levels, fear of crime is an important factor decreasing the life quality of individuals. Fear within the study area has been found to be scarce; however, it is determined that the spatial configuration of the area is related to fear. Therefore, it is seen that decreasing the conditions which can create unsafety within the urban space through design is necessary in order to promote a healthy city life. A safer environment should be created by popularizing mixed usage within the cities, transforming the areas with broken-down buildings and contributing them back to the city, and designing alternative routes in order to distribute the crowd equally. Also, the development of the current safety protocols should be provided by increasing the number and the variety of the studies about fear of crime.


This article is developed from the master thesis of Elif Köklü, entitled as “Analysing The Fear of Crime in City Centers: Example of Beşiktaş”, prepared in Istanbul Technical University with the counseling of Prof. Dr. Funda Yirmibeşoğlu.


Appendix 1. Sinanpasa district 1/5000 scale conservation master zoning plan (Besiktas municipality).

Appendix 2. Demographic profiles of survey participants.

Appendix 3. Usage experience of the survey participants in Besiktas.

Appendix 4. Safety status in Besiktas.

Appendix 5. Unsafety causes of survey participants.

Appendix 6. Unsafe areas for survey participants.

Appendix 7. Survey participants’ post renewal safety perception.

Appendix 8. Land use in Sinanpasa Mahallesi and Mentioned Streets in the manner of fear by participants (Köklü, 2016) .

Appendix 9. Photographs of the streets where the participants in the Sinanpaşa Neighborhood indicated that they were afraid (Köklü, 2016) .

Appendix 10. Photographs of the streets where the participants in the Sinanpaşa Neighborhood indicated that they were afraid (Köklü, 2016) .

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Conflicts of Interest

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