"return57"> (Bilen et al., 2013) , the reason why the fear of crime, which is relatively high in Beşiktaş District, is lower in the study area, the core of Beşiktaş, is because the area is vivacious and used every hour of the day. Also, the common mixed usage in the area is another factor to decrease fear.

The streets and areas where the participants feel unsafe are usually overcrowded hotspots with widespread commercial business-service space usage, isolated streets, and the streets with stairs obstructing escape routes in case of a crime event (Appendix 9 and Appendix 10). It can be concluded that the obtained data in this sense is consistent and have parallels with the space features creating unsafety identified in the previous literature studies (Ergun & Yirmibeşoğlu, 2015; Tulloch, 2000; Smolej & Kivivuari, 2006) .

The axial map of Sinanpaşa Neighborhood and surroundings has been created and the selection choice, integration and connectivity values have been examined. Accordingly, it is determined that the streets with high or medium level of choice and global integration values in the study area are places with higher levels of fear of crime. Streets with high values of integration and connectivity are easily accessible. Therefore, they are crowded, active and preferred by more people. This condition causes a development of an environment conducive to crime events in the street. Due to this, it is significant that the users indicate a fear in the streets with high values of connectivity and integration within the study area. Plenty of studies have been and are being done about fear of crime around the world. However, in Turkey, even though there have been studies by the government about identifying crime rates, not much has been said about the topic of fear of crime and there have not been many studies about this subject. When experienced at high levels, fear of crime is an important factor decreasing the life quality of individuals. Fear within the study area has been found to be scarce; however, it is determined that the spatial configuration of the area is related to fear. Therefore, it is seen that decreasing the conditions which can create unsafety within the urban space through design is necessary in order to promote a healthy city life. A safer environment should be created by popularizing mixed usage within the cities, transforming the areas with broken-down buildings and contributing them back to the city, and designing alternative routes in order to distribute the crowd equally. Also, the development of the current safety protocols should be provided by increasing the number and the variety of the studies about fear of crime.

Acknowledgements

This article is developed from the master thesis of Elif Köklü, entitled as “Analysing The Fear of Crime in City Centers: Example of Beşiktaş”, prepared in Istanbul Technical University with the counseling of Prof. Dr. Funda Yirmibeşoğlu.

Appendixes

Appendix 1. Sinanpasa district 1/5000 scale conservation master zoning plan (Besiktas municipality).

Appendix 2. Demographic profiles of survey participants.

Appendix 3. Usage experience of the survey participants in Besiktas.

Appendix 4. Safety status in Besiktas.

Appendix 5. Unsafety causes of survey participants.

Appendix 6. Unsafe areas for survey participants.

Appendix 7. Survey participants’ post renewal safety perception.

Appendix 8. Land use in Sinanpasa Mahallesi and Mentioned Streets in the manner of fear by participants (Köklü, 2016) .

Appendix 9. Photographs of the streets where the participants in the Sinanpaşa Neighborhood indicated that they were afraid (Köklü, 2016) .

Appendix 10. Photographs of the streets where the participants in the Sinanpaşa Neighborhood indicated that they were afraid (Köklü, 2016) .

Submit or recommend next manuscript to SCIRP and we will provide best service for you:

Accepting pre-submission inquiries through Email, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, etc.

A wide selection of journals (inclusive of 9 subjects, more than 200 journals)

Providing 24-hour high-quality service

User-friendly online submission system

Fair and swift peer-review system

Efficient typesetting and proofreading procedure

Display of the result of downloads and visits, as well as the number of cited articles

Maximum dissemination of your research work

Submit your manuscript at: http://papersubmission.scirp.org/

Or contact cus@scirp.org

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Apak, S., ülken, G., & ünlü, A. (2002). Yeni bir toplu konut yerlesmesinde güvenlik duygusunun degerlendirilmesi. [Assessment of Security Perception in a New Housing Complex.] Itü Dergisi/a, 1, 65-72.
[2] Atac, E. (2007). The Perception of Crime in Urban Space; Feeling of insecurity. Issue 06, TMMOB Mimarlar Odasi Ankara Subesi, Journal 55, November-December 2007.
[3] Atac, E. (2008). Kent, güvenlik ve güvenli kent planlamasi; Bursa Ornegi (Yüksek lisans tezi). [City, Security and Safe Urban Planning; Bursa Example (Master Degree Thesis).] Ankara: Gazi üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü.
[4] Basibüyük, O., & Karakus, O. (2010). Sosyal düzensizlik ve toplum destekli güvenlik politikalari. [Social disorganization and community-supported security policies.] Türkiye Sosyoloji Arastirmalari Dergisi, 13, 65-97.
[5] Besiktas Belediyesi. [Besiktas Municipality Publishing.] http://www.besiktas.bel.tr/
[6] Bilen, O., Askin, O. H., Okten, A., & Gur, M. (2013). How the Fear of Crime Spatially Differs among the Districts of Istanbuli. NWSA-Social Sciences, 8, 153-164.
[7] Boers, K. (2003). Crime, Fear of Crime and the Operation of Crime Control in the Light of Victim Surveys and Other Empirical Studies. In 22nd Criminological Research Conference (pp. 24-26). Munster University.
[8] Chadee, D., & Ditton, J. (2003). Are Older People Most Afraid of Crime? British Journal of Criminology, 43, 417-433. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/43.2.417
[9] Cardak, B. (2011). Ankara’da yasayan kadinlarda suc magduru olma korkusu üzerine nitel bir calisma (Yayimlanmamis yüksek lisans tezi). [A Qualitative Study on the Fear of Crime Victimization in Women Living in Ankara (Unpublished Post Graduate Thesis).] Ankara: T.C. Kara Harp Okulu.
[10] Dolu, O., Uludag, S., & Dogutas, C. (2010). Fear of Crime: Causes, Consequences and Security Policies. Ankara University SBF Journal, 65, 57-81.
[11] Düzgün, S. (2007). Suc olgusuna teorik yaklasimlar ve disiplinlerarasilik. [Theoretical Approaches and Interdisciplinarity to Crime Issue.] TMMOB Ankara Subesi Bülteni, 6, 4-10.
[12] Ergun, N., & Yirmibesoglu, F. (2007). Distribution of Crime Rates in Different Districts in Istanbul. Turkish Studies, 8, 435-455. https://doi.org/10.1080/14683840701489324
[13] Ergun, N., & Yirmibesoglu, F. (2015). Fear of Crime among Women in the Old City Center of Istanbul. Current Urban studies, 3, 161-174. https://doi.org/10.4236/cus.2015.32014
[14] Ergun, N., & Yirmibesoglu, F. (2016). Differences Fear of Crime between Residents and Visitors in the Old City Center of Istanbul. Valley International Journals, 3, 3106-3122.
[15] Fattah, E. A. (1993). Victimisation and Fear of Crime among the Elderly: A Possible Link? Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
http://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/conferences/olderpeople/fattah.pdf
[16] Ferguson K. M., & Mindel C. H. (2007). Modeling Fear of Crime in Dallas Neighborhoods: A Test of Social Capital Theory. Crime & Deliquency, 53, 322-349.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128705285039
[17] Ferraro, K. F. (1995). Fear of Crime, Interpreting Victimization Risk. New York, NY: Suny Research & Forecast Inc.
[18] Gokulu, G. (2010). Kent güvenligi, kentlesme ve suc iliskisi. [Urban security, urbanization and crime relation.] Atatürk üniversitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Dergisi, 24, 209-226.
[19] Gürbüz, D. (2015). Türkiye’de kentlesme sürecinde coküntü bolgesi ve suc iliskisi: Hacibayram Mahallesi ornegi. [The Process of Urbanization in Slum Areas and Crime Relation in Turkey: Sample of Hacibayram Neigbourhood.] Akademik Bakis Dergisi, 47, 1-15.
[20] Hillier, B., & Shu, S. (2000). Crime and Urban Layout: The Need for Evidence. In S. Bal-lintyne, K. Pease, & V. McLaren (Eds.), Secure Foundations: Key Issues in Crime Prevention, Crime Reduction and Community Safety (pp. 224-248). London: IPPR.
[21] Hope, T., & Hough, M. (1998). Community Approaches to Reducing Crime. In T. Hope, & M. Shaw (Eds.), (pp. 1-29). London: Communities and Crime Reduction (Her Majesty’s Stationary Office).
[22] Jones, M., & Fanek, M. (1997). Crime in the Urban Environment. In M. D. Major, L. Amorim, & F. Dufoux (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st International Space Syntax Symposium, Vol. II, London, 25.1-25.11.
[23] Koklü, E. (2016). Kent merkezlerinde suc korkusunun incelenmesi: Besiktas ornegi (Yüksek lisans tezi). [Investigation of Fear of Crime In City Centers: Besiktas Sample.] Istanbul: Istanbul Teknik üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü.
[24] Listerborn, C. (1999). Women’s Fear and Space Configurations. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Space Syntax.
http://www.spacesyntax.net/symposia-archive/SSS2/SpSx%202nd%20Symposium%2099%20-2003%20pdf/2nd%20Symposium%20Vol%202%20pdf/51%20Listerborn%20300.pdf
[25] Maslow, A. H. (1942). The Dynamics of Psychological Security-Insecurity. Journal of Personality, 10, 331-344. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1942.tb01911.x
[26] Melde, E. C. (2007). Peer-Group Composition and the Percieved Risk of Victimization: Modeling Fear of Crime in a School-Based Sample. Unpublished PHD Thesis, St. Louis: University of Missouri Criminology and Criminal Justice.
[27] Nubani, L., & Wineman, J. (2013). The Role of Space Syntax in Identifying the Relationship between Space and Crime. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 53, 1689-1699.
[28] Pain, R. (2000). Place, Social Relations and the Fear of Crime: A Review. Progres in Human Geography, 24, 365-388. https://doi.org/10.1191/030913200701540474
[29] Robert, P., & Pottier, M. (2002). Crime et securite; L’etat des savoirs. [Crime and Security; The State of Knowledge.] Ceviren: Veysel Er, Polis Dergisi, 39, 13-24.
[30] Sandstig, G. (2010). Media Influences and Effects on Experiences of Uncertainty and Fear in Urban Spaces. Journal of US-China Public Administration, 7, 66-84.
[31] Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[32] Skogan, W. G., & Maxfield, M. G. (1981). Coping with Crime: Individual and Neighbourhood Reactions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
[33] Smolej, M., & Kivivuori, J. (2006). The Relation between Crime News and Fear of Violence. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 7, 211-227. https://doi.org/10.1080/14043850601002429
[34] Snedker, A. K. (2011). Neighborhood Conditions and Fear of Crime: A Reconsideration of Sex Differences. Crime & Delinquency, 61, 1-26.
[35] Stanko, E. A. (1992). The Case of Fearful Women: Gender, Personal Safety and Fear of Crime. Women and Criminal Justice, 4, 117-135. https://doi.org/10.1300/J012v04n01_06
[36] Sutton, R. M., & Farrall, S. (2005). Gender, Socially Desirable Responding and the Fear of Crime: Are Women Really More Anxious about Crime? British Journal of Criminology, 45, 212-224. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azh084
[37] Tulloch, M. (2000). The Meaning of Age Differences in the Fear of Crime. British Journal Criminol, 40, 451-467. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/40.3.451
[38] Warr, M., & Ellison, C. G. (2000). Rethinking Social Reactions to Crime: Personal and Altrustic Fear in Family. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 551-578. https://doi.org/10.1086/318964
[39] Wekerle, G. R., & Whitzman, C. (1995). Safe Cities: Guidelines for Planning, Design and Management (pp. 5-25). A Division of International Thomson Publishing.
[40] Winkel, F. W. (1998). Fear of Crime and Criminal Victimization: Testing a Theory of Psychological Incapacitation of the “Stressor” Based on Downward Comparison Processes. British Journal of Criminology, 38, 473-484. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjc.a014258
[41] Yenen, Z., Akin, O., & Yakar, H. (2000). Eyüp DonüGüm Sürecinde Sos-yal- Ekonomik-Mekansal Yapi, Eyüp Belediyesi Yayini, Istanbul. [Social-Economic-Spatial Structure in the Eyüp Transformation Process, Eyüp Municipality Publishing.]
[42] Yilmaz, G. (2006). Türkiye’de suc ve sucluluk olgusunun kentlesme baglaminda irde-lenmesi (Yayimlanmamis Yüksek Lisans Tezi). [The Analysis of Crime and Guiltiness in the Context of Urbanization in Turkey (Unpublished Master Thesis).] Istanbul: Istanbul Teknik üniversitesi, Fen Bi-limleri Enstitüsü.

  
comments powered by Disqus
CUS Subscription
E-Mail Alert
CUS Most popular papers
Publication Ethics & OA Statement
CUS News
Frequently Asked Questions
Recommend to Peers
Recommend to Library
Contact Us

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.