RETRACTED: Molecular Detection of Epstein Barr Virus in Women with Breast Cancer in the West Algeria


Short Retraction Notice

The paper does not meet the standards of "Journal of Cancer Therapy".

This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. The aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.

Editor guiding this retraction: Prof. Dr. Sibu P. Saha (EiC of JCT)

The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper, which is marked "RETRACTED".

Share and Cite:


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ries, L.A.G., Eisner, M.P., Kosary, C.L., et al. (2002) Cancer Statistics Review. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda.
[2] Yost, K., Perkins, C., Cohen, R., Morris, C. and Wright, W. (2001) Socioeconomic Status and Breast Cancer Incidence in California for Different Race/Ethnic Groups. Cancer Causes & Control, 12, 703-711.
[3] Ganem, D. (1997) KSH CV and Kaposi’s Sarcoma: The End of the Beginning? Cell, 91, 157-160.
[4] Macsween, K.F. and Crawford, D.H. (2003) Epstein-Barr Virus-Recent Advances. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 3, 131-140.
[5] Matsuoka, M. (2003) Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I and Adult T-Cell Leukemia. Oncogene, 22, 5131-5140.
[6] Zur Hausen, H. (2000) Papillomaviruses Causing Cancer: Evasion from Host-Cell Control in Early Events in Carcinogenesis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92, 690-698.
[7] Arbach, H., Viglasky, V., Lefeu, F., et al. (2006) Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Genome and Expression in Breast Cancer Tissue: Effect of EBV Infection of Breast Cancer Cells on Resistance to Paclitaxel (Taxol). Journal of Virology, 80, 845-853.
[8] Dalia, D., Mourah, S., Podgorniak, M., Joab, I., Radulescy, C., Elhassen, B. and Zohra, E. (2015) Research of Epstein-Barr Virus Genome and Quantification of Viral Load in Algerian Frozen Tissue of Breast Cancer. International Journal of Cancer Research, 11, 32-40.
[9] Rickinson, A.B. and Kieff, E. (1996) Epstein-Barr Virus. In: Fields, B.N., Knipe, D.M. and Howley, P.M., Eds., Fields Virology, Vol. 2, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 2397-2446.
[10] Ferlay, J., Bray, F., Pisan, P., et al. (2004) GLOBOCAN 2002 Cancer Incidence. Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide IARC Cancer Base No. 5, Version 2.0, IARC Press, Lyon.
[11] Bittner, J.J. (1942) The Milk-Influence of Breast Tumors in Mice. Science, 95, 462-463.
[12] Bonnet, M., Guinebretiere, J.M., Kremmer, E., et al. (1999) Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus in Invasive Breast Cancers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 91, 1376-1381.
[13] Bensaber, H.S. (2011) Distribution intratumorale mammaire des marqueurs Her2, PS2, MIB1 et des récepteurs hormonaux selon l’age et le grade SBR.
[14] WHO (World Health Organization) (1990) International of Diseases for Oncology. 2nd Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[15] Sabin, L. and Wittekind, C. (1998) TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours. 5th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken.
[16] Bloom, H.J. and Richardson, W.W. (1957) Histological Grading and Prognosis in Breast Cancer: A Study of 1409 Cases of Which 359 Have Been Followed for 15 Years. British Journal of Cancer, 11, 359-377.
[17] Saiki, R.K., Bugawan, T.L., Horn, G.T., Mullis, K.B. and Erlich, H.A. (1986) Analysis of Enzymatically Amplified Beta-Globin and HLA-DQ Alpha DNA with Allele-Specific Oligonucleotide Probes. Nature, 324, 163-166.
[18] Gopal, M.R., Thomson, B.J., Fox, J., Tedder, R.S. and Honess, R.W. (1990) Detection by PCR of HHV-6 and EBV DNA in Blood and Oropharynx of Healthy Adults and HIV Seropositives. Lancet, 335, 1598-1599.
[19] Gaffey, M.J., Frierson, H.F., Mills, S.E., et al. (1993) Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast. Identification of Lymphocyte Subpopulations and Their Significance. Modern Pathology, 6, 721-728.
[20] Grinstein, S., Preciado, M.V., Gattuso, P., et al. (2002) Demonstration of Epstein-Barr Virus in Carcinomas of Various Sites. Cancer Research, 62, 4876-4878.
[21] Lespagnard, L., Cochaux, P., Larsimont, D., et al. (1995) Absence of Epstein-Barr Virus in Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast as Demonstrated by Immunophenotyping, in Situ Hybridization and Polymerase Chain Reaction. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 103, 449-452.
[22] McCall, S.A., Lichy, J.H., Bijwaard, K.E., et al. (2001) Epstein-Barr Virus Detection in Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93, 148-150.
[23] Preciado, M.V., Chabay, P.A., De Matteo, E.N., et al. (2005) Epstein-Barr Virus in Breast Carcinoma in Argentina. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 129, 377-381.
[24] Serraino, D., Piselli, P. and Scognamiglio, P. (2001) Viral Infections and Cancer: Epidemio-Logical Aspects. Journal of Biological Regulators & Homeostatic Agents, 15, 224-228.
[25] Huang, J., Chen, H., Hutt-Fletcher, L., Ambinder, R.F. and Hayward, S.D. (2003) Lytic Viral Replication as a Contributor to the Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus in Breast Cancer. Journal of Virology, 77, 13267-13274.
[26] Deshpande, C.G., Badve, S. and Kidwai, N. (2002) Lack of Expression of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Gene Products, EBERs, EBNA1, LMP1, and LMP2A, in Breast Cancer Cells. Laboratory Investigation, 82, 1193-1199.
[27] Dadmanesh, F., Peterse, J.L. and Sapino, A. (2001) Lymphoepitheliomalike Carcinoma of the Breast: Lack of Evidence of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection. Histopathology, 38, 54-61.
[28] Glaser, S.L., Lin, R.J., Stewart, S.L., et al. (1997) Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hodgkin’s Disease: Epidemiologic Characteristics in International Data. International Journal of Cancer, 70, 375-382.<375::AID-IJC1>3.0.CO;2-T
[29] Preciado, M.V. (2003) Lack of Evidence for an Association of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Breast Carcinoma—Another Point of View. Breast Cancer Research, 5, E6.
[30] Chu, J.S., Chen, C.C. and Chang, K.J. (1998) In Situ Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus in Breast Cancer. Cancer Letters, 124, 53-57.
[31] Labrecque, L.G., Barnes, D.M. and Fentiman, I.S. (1995) Epstein-Barr Virus in Epithelial Cell Tumors: A Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Research, 55, 39-45.
[32] Chu, P.G., Chang, K.L. and Chen, Y.Y. (2001) No Significant Association of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Invasive Breast Carcinoma. Journal of Pathology, 159, 571-578.
[33] Kieff, E. and Rickinson, A.B. (1996). Epstein-Barr Virus and Its Replication. In: Knipe, D.M., Howley, P.M., Griffin, D.E., Martin, M.A. and Lamb, R.A., Eds., Field’s Virology, Lippincott-Raven Press, Philadelphia, 2511-2573.
[34] Fina, F., Romain, S., Ouafik, L., et al. (2001) Frequency and Genome Load of Epstein-Barr Virus in 509 Breast Cancers from Different Geographical Areas. British Journal of Cancer, 84, 783-790.
[35] Kijima, Y., Hokita, S., Takao, S., et al. (2001) Epstein-Barr Virus Involvement Is Mainly Restricted to Lymphoepithelial Type of Gastric Carcinoma among Various Epithelial Neoplasms. Journal of Medical Virology, 64, 513-518.
[36] Xue, S.A., Lampert, I.A., Haldane, J.S., Bridger, J.E. and Griffin, B.E. (2003) Epstein-Barr Virus Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer: Protagonist or Passenger? British Journal of Cancer, 89, 113-119.
[37] Lin, J.H., Tsai, C.H., Chu, J.S., et al. (2007) Dysregulation of HER2/HER3 Signaling Axis in Epstein-Barr Virus-Infected Breast Carcinoma Cells. Journal of Virology, 81, 5705-5713.
[38] Yu, D., Liu, B., Jin, T., Sun, D., Price, J.E., Singletary, S.E., et al. (1998) Over-Expression of Both p185c-erbB2 and p170mdr-1 Renders Breast Cancer Cells Highly Resistant to Taxol. Oncogene, 16, 2087-2094.
[39] Mazouni, C., Fina, F., Romain, S., Ouafik, L., Bonnier, P., et al. (2011) Epstein-Barr Virus as a Marker of Biological Aggressiveness in Breast Cancer. British Journal of Cancer, 104, 332-337.
[40] Perrigoue, J.G., den Boon, J.A., Friedl, A., Newton, M.A., Ahlquist, P. and Sugden, B. (2005) Lack of Association between EBV and Breast Carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 14, 809-814.
[41] Perkins, R.S., Sahm, K., Marando, C., Dickson-Witmer, D., Pahnke, G.R., Mitchell, M., Petrelli, N.J., Berkowitz, I.M., Soteropoulos, P., Aris, V.M., Dunn, S.P. and Krueger, L.J. (2006) Analysis of Epstein-Barr Virus Reservoirs in Paired Blood and Breast Cancer Primary Biopsy Specimens by Real Time PCR. Breast Cancer Research, 8, R70.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.