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Evidences for a Unified Physics, in Full Accordance with the Newtonian Laws ()

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*emission time*T, at speed u (escape speed from all the masses in space), is invariant for every real measurement, (intending a measurement requiring an interaction light-matter), in spite of any reciprocal motion source-Observer. Thus we may argue that the light has to be composed of such particles (

*photons*) moving at speed c = u. Compliance of these

*photons*with Newtonian mechanics is shown for many effects, (like the Doppler effect, redshift, time dilation, etc.), highlighting the differences versus the Relativity. In the 2

^{nd}part, on the assumption that the electron charge can be considered as a point-particle fixed to the electron surface, always facing the atom nucleus during the electron revolution, we revised the light-matter interaction, showing that it only depends on the particular impacts between these

*photons*and the circling electrons: for instance, on H atom, we found 137 circular orbits only, the last one being the ionization orbit, where the electron orbital speed becomes v

_{i}= c/137

^{2}. [Classical mechanics implies that orbiting electrons produce an electro-magnetic radiation causing their fall into the nucleus: on Section 3.5, the reason why the electron circular orbits are stable].

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Cite this paper

*Journal of Modern Physics*,

**7**, 2231-2255. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2016.715193.

1. Introduction

This paper is based on following assumptions:

I. Finite mass of the universe, (implying a finite value of the total gravitational potential U).

II. Light composed of longitudinal-extended elastic particles moving at speed c = u.

On above bases we obtain, among others, these following results:

a) The relation u= (−2U)^{1/2}, where u is total escape speed, that is the escape speed from all the masses (in space); then we assumed c = u.

b) The measured constancy of c, under a constant potential U, (like on Earth), for every Observer.

c) Doppler effect (DE) equations for the light, slightly different from the relativistic ones.

d) Regarding the Harvard Tower Experiment, the compensating velocity, (to restore the resonance source-absorber), see Section 2.4, has same value but contrary direction with respect to the one predicted by the Relativity.

e) On Earth, at height h, (e.g. at GPS satellites level), it is shown that a source (of light) emits at a lower frequency, inducing atomic clocks to run faster.

f) High redshifts, related to far sources, depend on the increase of c (as well as the increase of the photons length λ) during the path of light toward the Earth, (where |U_{o}| ? |U_{→∞}|).

In the 2^{nd} part, we show the interaction between our particles and circling electrons; we revised the electron structure, assuming the electron charge as a point-particle, (facing the atom nucleus during the electron orbit), which turns out to be the impact point between photons and electron; some results:

g) On H atom there are only electron circular orbits; along each of them, n is also the number of admitted photons. We show that 2n_{0}/n_{e0} =α(cm_{r}/2hR_{H})^{1/2} = 1 (exactly) with n_{0} the photons admitted frequency along the ground-state orbit r_{0} (different, because of our new atom structure, from the Bohr radius) and n_{e0} the frequency of the electron reduced mass m_{r} along r_{0}, with α the fine structure constant.

h) On Photoelectric effect, the number of photons hitting the electron varies from n_{f} to where n_{f} is related to the specific threshold frequency n_{f} (=W_{f}/h). For instance, it is shown that, as for Caesium (having W_{f} @ 2 eV), one gets n_{f} = 361.

i) On Compton Effect, the number of photons admitted is one We point out that we got the Compton equation via our Doppler effect for the light, different from the relativistic Doppler Effect.

2. Part 1

2.1. Total Escape Speed

This argument has been widely treated on Section 2 of our previous paper [1] . Here we remember:

(1)

escape speed of a particle m at a distance s from the mass M, with U the gravitational potential acting on m; if M is a real mass, s becomes the distance m-C_{p} with C_{p} the Centre of Potential of M, that is the point where |U| has the max value), while the escape velocity of m which has to be referred to C_{p},

(2)

may be called as absolute escape velocity of m, absolute as referred to C_{p}; then

(3)

is the potential due to two masses; then the escape speed from two masses becomes

(4)

yielding

(5)

thus

(6)

is the total escape speed, with U the total potential; u(absolute escape velocity)has to be referred to the centre of potential of all the masses, C_{p}. Now, if S is a Source emitting a particle m, we may call

(7)

as relative escape velocity of m from S, (relative as u is referred to S). We assume now

(8)

showing that c depends on U; on Earth, U is practically constant, see the final “Conclusions”.

Equation (8) is supported by a cosmological reason, as better explained between the Equation (5) and Equation (6) on [1] : in short, c > u implies the masses dispersion, c < u implies a gravitational collapse, where as c = u, appears to be the right speed of the light to avoid the two said events (collapse or dispersion).

2.2. Invariance of c for Every Observer, Under the Newtonian Laws

-This chapter is a deep revision/improvement of chapter4 of our previous paper [1] -

We assume now the light as composed of particular particles (photons), giving a Newtonian reason to the (apparent) constancy of c, defined as follows:

“Longitudinally-extended, elastic and massive particles having speed equal to the total escape speed u, and moving along rays, (continuous succession of photons)”.

(More photons emitted by a source, during an emission time T, need an equal number of rays).

Along each ray, every tail of a photon corresponds to the front of the next photon.

Now, on Figure 1, let S be a Source, (moving from an Observer O with velocity v_{OS}), starting to emit, at t = 0, (when S is coincident with O), a photon (with front A), along the direction S-O; therefore

(9)

represents, see Equation (7), at t = 0, the relative escape velocity of the front A from O, while the velocity of the front A, with respect to S, that is v_{SA}, turns out to be

(10)

Figure 1. The source S, in motion from the observer O, emits the photon AB.

Now, being S_{T} be the position of S at t = T, we get

(11)

where λ_{O} is the photon AB emitted with S in motion from O, whereas λ (ºuT) would be the photon AO if, during T, v_{OS}= 0. Thus, at t =T, if the source is receding from the front A, as in Figure 1, the photon length λ_{O}, (for the Observer O), from Equation (11), becomes

, (with) (12)

where, with Δλ (=v_{OS}T) the path O-S_{T} covered by S during T. For instance, if v_{OS} = 0, the (12) gives with λ the photon length as seen by S.

The Equation (12) shows that the length of a photon during its emission, given u and T, depends on v_{OS}, meaning that Observers in reciprocal motion state different length for the same photon.

Now, referring to an Observer O, the speed of a photon, (since its length could vary), has to be defined considering its length λ_{O} referred to its transit time T_{O}, leading to

(13)

Returning to Figure 1, the transit time T_{O} of the photon AB, for the Observer O, is given by the time the front A needs to cover the path λ, that is T (=λ/u), plus the time the tail B needs to cover the path S_{T} − O = Δλ (=v_{OS}T) which is ΔT = v_{OS}T/u, giving

(with) (14)

Thus, see Equation (13), referring to the Observer O, the speed of the photon AB becomes

(15)

showing that c is invariant, under the Newtonian laws, in spite of any speed Source- Observer.

Anyhow, a photon, once emitted, has a constant length for every Observer, hence its speed has to vary for Observers in reciprocal motion, but we point out that the measurements of c via the method d/t implies that the light has to cross (or to be reflected by) an Observer O (taking the initial time); this means that O becomes the source S of photons emitted by a source at rest with O(v_{OS} = 0) who will state a length λ_{O} = λ, a transit timeT_{O} = T giving to c a constant measured value.

Along one ray, the frequency of photons, for an Observer O, is their number crossing O during a time t, that isn = n/t; thus for t = T_{O}, (transit time of one photon, for an Observer O), from Equation (14),

(16)

with the sign + when S and O, during the emission, are receding from each other. We point out that for β = 0, (v_{OS}/u = 0), the photons frequency as stated by a source S (n_{s}), has to be equal to the one stated by O (n_{O}), which is also valid if O and S belong to different potential, (e.g., the equality of the number of balls falling from the top of a tower with respect to an Observer at the tower base), and this, for v_{OS} = 0, always implies n_{s} = n_{O}. Figure 1, as well as Equations ((12) and (16)) represent the longitudinal Doppler effect for the light while, in general, this effect, with α the angle between the direction of S and OS, (and with S receding from O), see Figure 2, can be written as

(with) (17)

Figure 2. Doppler effect.

Figure 3. Transverse doppler effect.

Figure 4. Source circling around the observer O.

As for the Transverse Doppler effect, see Figure 3, in general, we have

(18)

As for a source circling around an Observer O, see Figure 4, it is always λ_{O} > λ as follows:

(19)

while their photons transit time is

(20)

where r is the orbit radius, ω the angular speed, yielding, to every photon, the speed c_{O} = c.

2.3. Physical Characteristics of These Photons

Also this argument has been widely treated on our previous paper [1] : here we point out that as the energy of light is valid for any mass, it has to be also valid for the light (massive on our bases) and therefore, writing we have to argue that each photon is provided with an internal energy equal to its kinetic energy K_{c}. Toward the infinity, (where c_{∞} → 0) both K_{c} and K_{i} → 0 and therefore, since E = hn,

(21)

represents the energy of one ray of light, (where photons are flowing) and where

(22)

is the mass of light, having frequency ν, passing along one ray in 1s, while the constant

(23)

where

(24)

thus the Planck’s constant turns out to be the energy of one photon.

Now, since m is the mass of light passing along one ray in 1s, the term, with n_{r} the number of rays emitted by a source S, becomes the energy emitted by S in 1s; this unitary (unit of time) energy shall be equal to the supplied power P during 1s,yielding

, (25)

therefore

(26)

is the total mass lost per second by a source of light; e.g. for a 1W lamp, we get, while the number n_{r} of rays is

(27)

in our case, n_{r} ≅ 3 ´ 10^{18} rays. Then, for a given power P, the higher is the frequency, the lower is the number of rays, as shown by (27) written as n_{r}ν = P/h. The number of photons emitted in 1s is

(28)

which, for P = 1 W, gives n_{γ} = h^{−1} (=1.5 ´ 10^{33} photons/s), thus the inverse of Planck’s constant turns out to be the number of photons emitted in 1s by a source of unitary power, and this great number of photons allows the light to be treated as a wave.

Now, during inelastic impacts, (like on absorption or photoelectric effetcs), both kinetic and internal energy of the light are involved, so the momentum transferred to the electron is

(29)

while, during elastic impacts, the momentum transferred to the electron is

(30)

either for incident or for reflected photons, with Tʹ the total impact time for this interaction, as we show on Section 3.7, Compton effect; at this regard, via the (30), as well as via our Doppler effect equation, see (12), we get the Compton equation, which can not be obtained by the Relativity via their Doppler effect equations.

2.4. Re-Visitation of the Harvard Tower Experiment (HTE), Time Dilation, Gravitational Redshift

Also this argument has been widely treated on our previous paper [1] . Here the main results: referring to Figure 5(a), where h is the tower height, and M_{E} is the mass of Earth, writing the Equation (8) as c^{2} = −2U, we can obtain

(valid for) (31)

that is the variation of c from the tower base to its top, where c_{0} and c_{h} are the corresponding values of c, is the variation of potential; hence c_{h} < c_{0}, with.

Let now S be a Mossbauer source and A a related absorber, both, for instance, at the tower base, therefore in resonance. Then, see Figure 5(b), taking A to the top, and since A and S are now at rest, the frequency of the photons emitted by S, has to be equal to the one observed by A, that isn_{h}=n_{0}, therefore the Equation (31), as for the photons emitted by S, can be written as

(32)

and since c_{h} < c_{0}, it must be λ_{h} < λ_{0}, so, contrary to Relativity, A observes a blue-shift effect.

Figure 5. Harvard tower experiment (HTE) scheme; source at the base, our results.

Thus, to restore the resonance via Doppler Effect (DE), S and A, see Figure 5(c), have to recede from each other, in order that the photon length should increase, see Equation (12), from λ_{h} to with β = v_{AS}/c º v/c, so, equating the photon length variation (Δλ/λ = −v/c due, see (17), to DE), to Δλ/λ, due to the altitude, as given by (32), we get, yielding

(for). (33)

This value is also predicted by GR which, implying a decrease of n for the light moving from the base to the top, predicts an opposite direction of v with respect to the one shown on Figure 5(c); at this regard, Pound-Rebka and Pound-Snider, [2] [3] [4] , gave no clear indication about the direction of the compensating velocity.

Moreover, see Figure 5(b), with S on the base, emitting upward, A goes out of resonance and since on our basesn_{h} = n_{0}, the non-resonance is physically related to a variation of λ.

Now, see Figure 6(a), with A on the base, taking S to the top, the experience shows that the absorber goes out of resonance. Indeed, with S on the top, the (31) shows c_{h} < c_{0}, but what about the initial parameters of the photons emitted in altitude, n_{h} and λ_{h}?

Well, see Figure 6(b), since S and A are at reciprocal rest, the frequency of the photons arriving to the base, is n_{h}_{-0} = n_{h}, hence along the path top-base, the photon length λ_{h}_{-0} has to increase (following the increase of c from c_{h} to c_{0}); thus we have to argue that taking the source on top, see Figure 6(a), the photons initial length must be λ_{h} = λ_{0}, in order that after the path top-base, it becomes λ_{h}_{-0} > λ_{0} (inducing the absorber to go out of resonance).This implies

(34)

showing that, taking S to the top, n_{h} < n_{0}. Now, along the path top-base, Δλ/λ has opposite sign with respect to (32), yielding, and since λ_{h} = λ_{0}, we get

(35)

showing an increase of λ from the top to the base. Hence the absorber, on the base, will state a red-shift so, to compensate it via Doppler shift, see Figure 6(c), S and A have now to move relative to each other; on the contrary, according to Relativity, A and S should recede from each other.

Figure 6. Harvard tower experiment scheme; source on the top, our results.

Time dilation: Atomic clocks in altitude (h-clocks) are ticking faster than identical clocks on the ground (g-clocks): indeed, on our bases, at height h, see (30), we have, while taking a clock to a GPS satellite, see also Figure 6(a), from (34), one finds

(36)

with T_{h} = 1/n_{h} the counted time of one photon emitted by a h-clock, while T_{0} to a g-clock. Thus the variation of the counted time between the two clocks, for every emitted photon, becomes

(37)

Now, the frequency of photons is their number emitted in 1 s along one ray, there- fore the term

(with) (38)

is the number of photons (atomic transition of Cs 137) that constitute a one-second, so that

(39)

is the variation ofn_{1s} emitted in1 s by a h-clock; now, see (31), ΔU = M_{E}Gh/r_{h}r_{0} and sincer_{h} ≅ 26,600 km , r_{0} ≅ 6400 km, with h ≅ 20,200 km , the increase of counted time in one day () of a h-clock, with respect to a g-clock, becomes

(40)

Now, being v = 2(2πr_{h}/86,400 = 3870 m/s the orbital speed of GPS satellites, (corres- ponding to two orbits/day), it turns out that the variation of the counted time, between a h-clock and an Observer E at the centre of Earth, due to their relative motion, is given by Equation (20) which, in our case, with β = v/c, becomes

(valid for) (41)

with T_{E} the photon counted time for the Observer E; then, with v_{0} the Earth’s rotational speed, and since, we can write T_{0} ≅ T_{E} with T_{0} the counted time of one photon for a g-clock; so, the difference between the two transit times T_{h} and T_{0} ≅ T_{E} given by (41), is

(42)

Then, as above, is the variation of the number of photons emitted by a h-clock in 1 s; so the variation of the counted time, in one day, becomes

(43)

showing a decrease of the counted time for a g-clock due to the clocks relative motion; hence

(44)

which is also predicted, (with different reason), by GR. To prevent the two said effects, before launching, the daily counted time (T_{1d}) of clocks, has to be decreased by ≅38 μs; this adjustment is sufficient to obtain synchronization between h-clocks and g-clocks: indeed, on our bases, the frequency of photons, emitted by a h-clock, does not change along the straight path satellite-ground, whereas as for the Relativity, because of its predicted increase of the frequency along the straight path satellite-ground, a g-clock should go, (for this 3^{rd} effect), out of synchronization.

Gravitational redshif

Referring to our previous paper [1] , we summarize, hereafter, the differences between the Relativity and our results: as for the Relativity, the only way to explain high cosmological redshifts is the Doppler effect, (which implies an incredible universe expansion at a speed v_{u} ≅ c), whereas, on our results, disregarding the reciprocal motion between a (far) source and an Observer on Earth, which impliesn = n_{0}, we get c/λ = c_{0}/λ_{0}, where n_{0}, c_{0} and λ_{0} are the values on Earth, showing that for c_{0} > c it has to be λ_{0} > λ, that is a red shift. In general, the shifts observed on Earth can be therefore expressed as

(45)

with U_{0} the potential on Earth, U the one on the source. Thus, apart from Doppler effects, z turns out to be the variation of c (as well as λ) during the path of light toward a different potential. For s < ≅ 45 Mpc, [5] , (corresponding to −0.01 < z < ≅0.01) if U (potential on the source) is, in absolute value, higher than the potential on Earth U_{0}, the (45) gives, on Earth, z < 0 (blue shift), and vice versa for |U| < |U_{0}|; thus, for s < ≅45 Mpc, these red/blue shifts indicate that the potential, may increase or decrease. In the range ≅0.01 < z < ≅0.20, (where z follows the Hubble’s law), the (45), written as

(valid for) (46)

shows that, for, U depends linearly on z, as Hubble’s law;then, for s→∞, U→0, hence z→∞, see Table 1.

Table 1. Calculated values of U and c related to the observed shifts on Earth.

For s > ≅45 Mpc, z is always positive, hence we may argue that our galaxy is close to the centre of potential C_{p} of all the masses, (where |U_{Cp}| has the max value), practically close to the middle of the masses of universe.

3. Part 2―Interaction Light-Matter

3.1. Electron Structure and Photon-Electron Impact Point

On our basis, (light composed of our photons), the interaction light-matter requires that to move a circling electron toward outer orbits, the impact photon-electron has to occur, see Figure 7(a), in a radial way, (giving origin to the radial velocity w), otherwise, some impacts could cause the electron fall into the nucleus, due, for instance, to an impact where photons-electron have contrary direction.

Figure 7. Photon-electron Impact point (I_{p}) and electron radial velocity w.

To be radial, the impact must occur in a specific point (Impact Point, fixed to the electron) which, during the electron revolution, has to face its nucleus, (up to its removal), giving to the electron one rotation every revolution. Thus we can infer that the electric charge of the electron, has to correspond to the Impact Point (I_{p}), and we have also to argue that each photon front is provided with a positive charge, while its tail with an equal negative one.

Moreover, in case of more impacts, as it happens, for instance, on Absorption/ Emission effect, where the impacts move a circling electron toward higher orbits, the impacts photons-electron have to occur all around the electron orbit, thus the impacting photons have to approach the nucleus, as shown on Figure 7(b), perpendicularly to the electron orbit plane, providing, to the electron, a radial velocity w.

3.2. H Atom Parameters (On Our Bases) and Meaning of Its Quantum Numbers

Figure 8. H atom configurations, (on our bases), at constant total energy. (a) Observed from the electron-proton common centre of gravity B; (b) Ditto, with the electron barycentre now coincident with its proper charge; (c) Observed from the proton fixed as origin, orbited by the electron having now a reduced mass.

The Figure 8(a) represents an H atom with both the electron mass m_{e} and the proton mass m_{p} circling around B (centre of mass of the system electron-proton), and where, on our bases:

r_{B} is the ground-state orbit of the electron charge,

r_{e} the electron radius,

r_{p} the proton ground-state orbit,

v_{e} = |v_{e}|, the electron ground-state (orbital) speed,

v_{p} the proton ground-state speed.

Hence, the ground-state orbit of the electron barycentre turns out to be

, (with). (47)

Now, to apply properly the equality between the electron centrifugal force and the Coulomb force, we have to consider the configuration (c) where the electron reduced mass

(with), (48)

is circling around the proton fixed as origin (O). Now, the total energy of the configurations (a) and (b) are:

Configuration (a), where;

Configuration (b), where;

hence for T_{a} = T_{b} we get = v_{e} and = v_{p}. (As for T_{c} = (T_{a} = T_{b}), next chapter).

Now, see Figure 8(b), can be found from the relation yielding

(49)

thus

(50)

Now, see Figure 8(c), equating along a circular orbit, the electron centrifugal force to the Coulomb one

, (51)

and calling the necessary and sufficient energy to move the electron charge from r toward ¥, and assuming U_{¥} = 0, we get

(52)

where is the potential due to electrostatic attraction. So the (51) becomes

(53)

Now, the orbital kinetic energy of m_{r} is, thus, with W the related ionization energy, (that is the electron extraction work), we may write

(54)

The term E = hn, see (21), is the energy of light passing along one ray, thus, if the ionization energy W () is supplied by one ray of light (with energy E = hn) it must be

(55)

Therefore, substituting 2hn () into (51) and solving by r we get

(56)

Now, plugging into (56) the value of the highest H-atom spectrum frequencyn_{0} = c/λ_{0} = cR_{H} where R_{H} (=1/λ_{0}) is the Rydberg constant, whose experimental value is R_{H} = 10,967,758 m^{-}^{1}, we get, as for H atom, see Figure 8(c), the ground-state orbit (referred to the proton) of the reduced electron

(57)

with α = e^{2}/2ε_{o}hc the fine structure constant. Then writing the (50) as, we get

(58)

corresponding to the Bohr radius, with, whereas, on our bases, r_{B} corresponds, see Figure 8(b), to the ground-state orbit of the electron around the electron-proton centre of mass B._{ }

Now, the speed of m_{r} along the orbit r_{0}, from (55),becomes _{ }

(59)

and given the frequency of the electron m_{r} along r_{0} that is n_{e}_{0} = v_{r0}/2πr_{0}, the ratio 2n_{0}/n_{e0}, with r_{0} (=α/4πR_{H}) as given by (57), becomes

(60)

hence it is consistent to assume 2n_{0}/n_{e0} = 1 (exactly). This ratio, written 2T_{e0} = T_{0}, implies that, on H atom, the light-electron impact time T_{0} lasts for two electron orbits.

Now, it is known that the admitted wavelengths, along circular orbits, have to satisfy the relation λ_{n} = n^{2}λ_{0}, with an integer, so we can also write

(61)

withn_{n} the photons admitted frequency along circular orbits. Then from (56) we can write

(62)

representing the radius of each circular orbit. Then, see (59), the orbital speed of the electron m_{r} along any circular orbit is

(63)

while its frequency is

. (64)

Then, dividing (61) by (64) and because of the ratio 2n_{o}/n_{eo} = 1, we get

(65)

Now, asn (= n/t) is the number n of photons passing along one ray during t, for t = 2T_{e} one gets n = n/2T_{e} = nn_{e}/2, which equals the (65), so the integer n of (65) also represents the number of photons (of the same ray) absorbed (or emitted) by the electron during 2T_{e} and this number, for all the n circular orbits of H atom, is an integer starting with 1 along the two orbits related to the photon n_{0}. [Between two circular orbits, the photons frequency are shown on Section 3.5].

The (65) written as nT_{n} = 2T_{en} shows that the impact time nT_{n} of n photons (with frequency n_{n}) equals the time needed by the electron, along the orbit r_{n}, for two orbits.

For n = 1, the Equation (65) corresponds to 2n_{0}2πr_{0}/v_{r0} = 1 and substituting here r_{0} (=e^{2}/8πε_{0}hn_{0}), as given by (57), we get 4πn_{0}e^{2}/8πε_{0}hn_{0}v_{r0} = 1, that is

(66)

same value given by (59). Now, comparing (59) to (66) we find

(67)

matching the R_{H} experimental value.

3.3. Impact Photon-Electron and Electron Radial Speed

Figure 9. H atom configurations. (a) observed from the common centre of gravity B. (b) ditto, with the electron centre now coincident with its proper charge. (c) observed from the nucleus fixed as origin, with the reduced electron massm_{r}. (d) observed from the nucleus, with m_{i} (here called electron impact mass) circling along the effective orbit, with two reduced charges (−e_{r}, +e_{r}).

Still referring to H atom, to apply properly the Conservation of momentum (CoM) to the impact photon-electron, we need, see Figure 9, a proper configuration where its nucleus should be fixed in the common centre of gravity B orbited by an equivalent electron mass m, as shown on Figure 9(d).

The Figure 9 shows the necessary passages, from Figures 9(a)-(d), to obtain such a configuration.

Referring to Figure 9(c), with m_{r} circling around, with orbital speed v_{0}, the (51) gives

(68)

and substituting, see (50), , we can write

(69)

then calling

(70)

electron impact mass, we get

(71)

and therefore

(72)

we can now write

where (73)

showing, see Figure 9(d), m circling along the orbit, implying an electron/proton reduced charge e_{r}. Now, referring to Figure 9(c), we have, and since, see (66), v_{r0} = αc, the orbital speed of m_{r} along the orbit becomes

(74)

which, given ε_{m} and ε_{r}, leads to v_{0} = c/137, as shown on next chapter.

We compare now the total energy T of the system electron-proton along the configurations of Figure 9: as for Figure 9(a) and Figure 9(b), the total energy of the system is; as for Figure 9(c), along r_{0}, we get; on 6(d),.

The conservation of momentum, applied before and after an inelastic impact photon-electron, since photon and w, see Figure 7, have same direction, the (29), for a generic atom, gives

(75)

representing the electron radial speed originated by an impact of one photon during the impact time T, while for n photons (with frequency ν) we have

. (76)

Regarding now the H atom and referring to Figure 9(c), meaning to consider the electron reduced mass m_{r} circling along r_{0}, the (75) forn = n_{0}, becomes

(77)

and since, see (59), , as shown by (66), we get

(78)

while considering the configuration 9(d), where the electron m_{i} is circling along, we get

(valid for) (79)

close to c/137^{2} = 15,972.743 m s^{-}^{1}; on next chapter, via r_{e}, we get w_{0} = c/137^{2} and v_{0} = c/137.

3.4. Ionization Condition, Number of Electron Circular Orbits (H Atom), and Electron Radii

Now, referring to Figure 10, let us consider an electron (m_{e}) circling, with velocity v around its nucleus with mass, which can therefore be considered as fixed in the atom centre of gravity B; its removal may happen when its radial speed w equals v (=|v|) that is

(80)

In particular, as for H atom, and referring to Figure 9(c), let us consider the electron m_{r} circling along r_{0}; comparing (78), that is w_{0} = α^{2}c, with (66) that is v_{r0} = αc, we get.

Figure 10. Ionization condition (w = v).

Now, along r_{0}, (ground-state orbit), we have n = 1 (meaning one photon along the double orbit r_{0}), hence the ionization, requiring w_{0}/v_{r0} = 1, cannot happen along r_{0}. Referring now to Figure 9(d), along the ionization double orbit (in short d-orbit) # n_{i}, where the photons incident frequency, see (61), is, the impact due to n_{i}photons would produce, considering the electron impact mass m_{i}, an electron radial speed, see (76), equal to

(81)

and since along this orbit (n_{i}), see (63), is v_{i} = v_{0}/n_{i}, where v_{0} is given by Equation (74), we find

(82)

hence the ionization, which requires w_{n}_{i} = v_{i}, with only n_{i} photons along the n_{i}^{th}d-orbit, would never happen; thus we must infer that there are 137 progressive d-orbits, where the electron is circling n times along every d-orbit; thus the number of photons admitted along n d-orbits turns out to be n^{2}, yielding to the radial speed, along n ionization d-orbits n_{i}, the value which becomes

(83)

giving the same radial speed w_{o} for any circular d-orbit, see Table 2.

Table 2. Ionization parameters of H atom (on the last column, 3^{rd} line, change according to the new value).

Now we can obtain the radius (r_{e}) of the electron: indeed, along the ionization d-orbit n_{i}, the ionization condition becomes w_{0} = v_{0}/n_{i}, and plugging v_{0} as giving by (74) we get

(84)

where w_{0} is given by (77) and since, see (67), we have

(85)

but n_{i} has to be an integer so we can infer n_{i} = 137, giving

(86)

yielding

(87)

Now, the correct values of m_{i}, w_{o} and v_{o} from (70), (79), (74), with ε_{r} given by (86), become

(88)

(89)

(90)

Now, the (84), that is n_{i} = v_{0}/w_{0}, through (89) and (90) yields

(91)

where n_{i}, on Absorption effect, is a specific constant representing the number of circular orbits as well as the numbers of admitted photons along theionization orbit.

3.5. Absorption/Emission Effect: Photons Admitted Frequencies, Claimed Fall of Circling Electron

Referring to Figure 11, where we represent the Absorption of photons from acircling electron, let us assume the nucleus mass, so to consider the nucleus fixed in the atom centre of gravity B. Now, the expression of the total energy of the system photon-electron is given by

(92)

where E(=mc^{2}) is the energy of the incident light, U_{r}(=−e^{2}/4πε_{0}r) is the potential due to electrostatic attraction acting on the electron, K_{e}(=m_{e}v^{2}) is the electron orbital kinetic energy, and K_{r}(=m_{e}w^{2}) its radial kinetic energy (related to its radial speed w).

Figure 11. Absorption effect: Incident photons are absorbed by the electron which moves toward higher orbits; when re-emitted, (electron moving toward inner orbits), have contrary direction.

Regarding the Absorption/Emission effect (elements on gaseous form), see Figure 11, along circular orbits it is K_{r} = 0 and since, at the end of absorption, along the orbit r_{2}, (where the photons have been absorbed), it is E_{2} = 0, between two circular orbits r_{1} and r_{2}, the (92) gives

. (93)

Now, from (53), U_{r} = −m_{e}v^{2}, and since K_{e} = ½m_{e}v^{2}, we get so from (93) we have; thus, as E_{1} = hν, and since m_{e}v^{2} = e^{2}/4πε_{0}r we find

(94)

Then, according to (62) we have r_{1} = r_{0}n^{2} and r_{2} = r_{0}k^{2} (with k > n as r_{2} > r_{1}), thus

(95)

and plugging the (57) written as n_{0} = e^{2}/8πε_{0}hr_{0}, we find

(96)

which is the photons frequency between two circular orbits, where n, as showed on Section 3.2, is an integer representing the (progressive) number of each circular orbit, and where k turns out to have the values which is, one by one, the number of the remaining external circular orbits.

Claimed fall of a circling electron into its nucleus: an electrical current emits an electro-magnetic radiation and therefore it is claimed that the circulating electrical charge of an electron should also emit an e.m. radiation yielding the electron, in a short time, to fall into the nucleus; but on our results, a free electron, moving, for instance, along a copper wire under an electrical potential difference, when entering into an atom influence, (at that moment the electron charge will return to face the atom nucleus), will release the necessary photons to reach the atom energy level corresponding to the energy previously received (during the absorption effect). Indeed, along circular orbits, it is w = 0, therefore the absorption/emission of photons may only start/finish along these orbits, thus the circling electrons are absorbing/emitting photons only between circular orbits, so the e.m. radiation related to an electrical current is due to the emitted photons during their re-entry to an atom; by the way, the photons emission is necessary for the electron not to fall into the nucleus.

3.6. Photoelectric Effect: Number of Photons Necessary for the Atom Ionization

Between the electron ground-state orbit r_{0} and its extraction orbit r ® ¥ (intending on microscopic scale), the (92), valid for every interaction light-matter, gives

(97)

with E' the energy of re-emitted light, w_{ae} the electron radial speed after its extraction, (its kinetic energy), while the other terms have been defined referring to (92).

On ground-state, as also shown between Equations ((93) and (94)), it is

(98)

with v_{0} the electron speed along r_{0} and with W_{f} the Work function (electron extraction

work); now, at the start of impact, w = 0 giving, while for r ® ¥, the

electron orbital speed v_{¥}_{} ® 0, so, and (97) gives

(99)

where is the total kinetic energy transferred from light to elec- tron. On Photoelectric Effect (PhE), the light scatters off an electron (K_{ae} ≥ 0), but it is not re-emitted, (E' = 0), so the (99), with n_{f} (=W_{f}/h) the specific threshold frequency, becomes

(100)

showing that forn = n_{f} there is ionization with w_{ae} = 0.

At frequency n_{f} the electron radial speed w_{f}, due to the impact of one photon, see Equation (75), is, and writing the (55) as v_{0} = (2W_{f}/m_{e})^{1/2}, we get

(101)

and since the values of W_{f} are in the range 2 - 6 eV, the (101) gives w_{f}/v_{0} @ 0.0028 - 0.0048 meaning that the ionization, requiring w = v_{0}, at frequencyn_{f} needs n_{f} photons, as follows: the electron radial speed due to n_{f} photons with frequency n_{f}, see (76), is, so the ionization condition (w = v) becomes w_{n}_{f} = v_{o} leading to giving

(102)

that is, on PhE, the number of photons at frequency n_{f} necessary for ionization(w_{ae} = 0). Now, if n_{f} photons, at frequencyn_{f}, are sufficient for ionization, then the frequency_{ }

(103)

is sufficient for ionization (w_{ae} = 0) with one photon only, meaning that ν_{1} is the threshold between PhE and Compton effect which requires one photon only, as shown on next chapter.

Now let us find the number n_{1} (giving w_{ae max}) of the impacting photons at frequency n_{1}: writing the (100) as hn = 1/2m_{e}w^{2}, (energy transferred from a ray of light to an electron), one gets w = (2hn/m_{e})^{1/2} which has to be equal to the electron radial speed due to n photons, w_{n} = 2nhn/cm_{e}, see (76); so, forn = n_{1} and n = n_{1}, we get yielding

(104)

with n_{1} the number of impacting photons at frequency n_{1} and plugging n_{f} given by (102), we find

(105)

meaning that on PhE, the number of impacts photons-electron varies from n_{f} related to the frequency n_{f} to related to the max admitted frequencyn_{1} (=n_{f}n_{f}). For instance as for caesium (Cs), having W_{f} @ 2 eV, since, we may infer n_{f} = 361 leading to n_{1} =19, while as for Pt, having W_{f} @ 6 eV, we may infer n_{f} = 196 leading to n_{1} = 14.

3.7. Compton Effect: Number of Photons Involved and Compton Equation via Doppler Effect

Here, see Figure 12, the incident photon (length λ, frequency n), while ejecting a circling electron is also reflected (λ', n') so the recoiling electron, emitting a photon λ' toward the Observer A, represents a source in motion from A along the direction w, implying an undoubted Doppler effect.

Figure 12. Compton effect (CE). φ: angle between the direction of the incident photon and the scattered one (λ'); θ: angle between the direction of the incident photon λ and the recoiled electron; θ' (= π ? φ − θ): it will be shown that θ' = θ.

Now, on the basis that the scattered photon starts to be reflected at the same time when the incident photon starts to hit the electron, and since is the emission time of the reflected photon, it turns out that is also the whole interaction time, meaning that there is not a complete absorption of the incident photon followed by an emission. Now, with the whole impact time photon-electron, the momentum transferred from the incident light to the electron, as per (30), is and the same value is then transferred from the reflected photon to the electron, so the Conservation of Momentum (CoM) along the direction normal to w, becomes

(106)

giving. Then, the length of the reflected photon, for the Observer A, see Equation (12) is

(107)

where Δλ = w_{A}T' and where w_{A} = wcosθ is the component of the electron speed along the direction of the Observer A and is, for A, the photon transit time, so we get

(108)

Now the CoM along w is

(109)

giving

. (110)

Then, plugging this value into (108) we get

(111)

Now, , , hence and therefore

(112)

and since, we get the Compton equation:

(113)

which cannot be obtained via the Doppler effect relativistic equations regarding the light.

Then, the (110), for cosθ = 1, equals the (75), implying the impact of one photon only.

Now, the (111), for cosθ = 1 gives, or which plugged into (110) gives

(114)^{ }

yielding, see Figure 13, w → c for n → ∞, whereas, for inelastic impacts, w is proportional ton.

Then, as for the electron radial speed after its extraction, here indicated v, from (100) we have W_{f} + K_{ae} = 1/2m_{e}w^{2} where K_{ae} = 1/2m_{e}n^{2} and since as shown by (98), we get

(115)

which for w = v_{0}, (ionization condition) gives n = 0, as represented on the Figure.

Figure 13. Relation between the incident frequencynand the electron radial speed (w) due to one photon.

4. Conclusions

The Relativity arose as a result of attempts to explain the (apparent) constancy of the speed of light which was supported by many experiments: in fact, on our bases/results, there is, on Earth, a continuous variation of c_{o} (c on Earth) which, from Equation (8), can be written Δc = −ΔU/c_{o} with ΔU the variation of the total potential on Earth (mainly due to the variable distance (d) Earth-Sun); indeed, between Aphelion and Perihelion (Δd_{PA} @ 5 ´ 10^{9} m), we get well lower than the accuracy of the measured value of c_{o}. Anyhow, under the assumption that the light is composed of longitudinal-extended elastic and massive particles (photons) emitted at a speed equal to the total escape speed, we showed that the speed of light, under a constant total potential, is constant for every Observer, in accordance with the Newtonian laws.

Moreover, the Relativity Theory may last until a contrary experiment: well, an update experiment, similar to the Harvard tower experiment, would show that the direction of the compensating velocity, (between the source and the absorber), is contrary, as per our results, to the one predicted by the Relativity.

The Quantum Mechanics arose as a result of attempts to explain the discrete spectrum of the hydrogen atom: here, a revised electron structure, an H atom new configuration, and the introduction of these photons for the interaction light-matter, gave a Newtonian answer to that question.

On the Appendix, we have described, in short, the main differences between the Relativity and our results, as well as between QM and our results.

Appendix

Comparison sheet, (short summary), between the Relativity Theory and our results.

Abbreviations: S = source (of light); n = freq. of light stated by S; O = Observer; n_{O} = freq. stated by O; U = totalgrav. potential.

Symbols

E (= mc^{2}) energy of the light flowing along one ray,

m = mass of light passing along one ray in 1s,

n = photons frequency (number of photons of the same ray, crossing an Observer, in 1s),

T = photon transit time (time for one photon to cross an Observer),

γ (= mT) mass of light passing along one ray during T,

n_{0} = photon admitted frequency along the electron ground-state orbit, on H atom

n_{n} = photon admitted frequency along the n^{th} circular electron orbit on H atom,

n_{f} (= W_{f}/h): specific threshold frequency on Photoelectric effect (PhE),

n_{1} = max admitted frequency on PhE; also minimum frequency able to produce the Compton effect,

ε_{m} º m_{e}/m_{P} (where m_{e}= electron mass and m_{p} = proton mass),

r_{0} = ground-state electron orbit on H atom: orbit of m_{r} referred to m_{p} (see Figure 8),

r_{B} = Bohr radius: electron charge orbit, referred to common centre of gravity (CCG) electron-proton,

= adjusted Bohr radius: electron centre of mass referred to the CCG electron-proton,

ε_{r} º r_{e}/r_{B} (where r_{e} = electron radius),

n_{e} = electron frequency,

n_{e0} = electron frequency on ground-state orbit r_{0}, H atom,

n_{en} = electron frequency along the n^{th} orbit, H atom,

v = generic speed, also electron orbital speed,

w = electron radial speed, due to the impact of one photon, referred to the atom centre of gravity,

w_{0} = electron radial speed due to the impact of one photon with frequency n_{0},

w_{f} = electron radial speed due to the impact of one photon with frequency n_{f},

w_{n} = electron radial speed due to the impact of n photons,

w_{n}_{0} = electron radial speed due to the impact of n photons with frequency n_{0},

n_{i} = number of admitted photons along the ionization orbit,

w_{ni} = electron radial speed due to the impact of n photons with frequency ^{ }

= electron radial speed due to the impact of n^{2} photons,

K_{r} (=m_{e}w^{2}) = electron radial kinetic energy,

w_{ae} = electron radial speed after extraction (on macroscopic scale), on photoelectric effect (PhE),

K_{ae} = electron radial kinetic energy after extraction (on macroscopic scale), on PhE,

v = electron radial speed after extraction (on macroscopic scale), on Compton effect.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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[5] | Nasa Extragalactic Database: (i.e. Galaxy M86 Has z ≅ -0.001 with s ≅ 16 Mpc; M99 Has z ≅ + 0.008 with s ≅ 15 Mpc; NGC0063 Has z ≅ +0.004 with s ≅ 20 Mpc; VCC0815 Has z ≅ -0.0025 with s ≅ 20 Mpc). |

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