Scientific Research

An Academic Publisher

**What the Null Energy Condition (and When It May Be Violated) Tells Us about Gravitational Wave Frequencies in/for Relic Cosmology?** ()

We introduce a criterion as to the range of HFGW generated by early universe conditions. The 1 to 10 Giga Hertz range is constructed initially starting with what Grupen writes as far as what to expect of GW frequencies which can be detected assuming a sensitivity of 7×h~10

^{-27}. From there we examine the implications of an earlier Hubble parameter at the start of inflation, and a phase transition treatment of pre to post Planckian inflation physics via use of inflatons. We close with an analysis of how gravitational constant G may vary with time, the tie in with the NEC condition and how to select a range of relic GW frequencies. The gravitational frequencies in turn may enable resolving a mis match between the datum that the entropy of the center of the galaxy black hole is greater than the entropy of the present four dimensional universe as we can infer and measure.Keywords

Share and Cite:

A. Beckwith, "What the Null Energy Condition (and When It May Be Violated) Tells Us about Gravitational Wave Frequencies in/for Relic Cosmology?,"

*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 2 No. 9, 2011, pp. 977-991. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2011.29118.Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

[1] | A. W. Beckwith, “What Violations of the Null Energy Condition Tell Us about Information Exchange between Prior to Present Universes? How to Obtain Spectral Index Confirmation?” http://vixra.org/abs/1102.0030 |

[2] | S. Weinberg, “Cosmology,” Oxford University Press, New York, 2008 |

[3] | A. W. Beckwith, “Is Nature Fundamentally Continuous or Discrete, and How Can These Two Different but Very Useful Conceptions Be Fully Reconciled? (Condensed Version),” 2011. http://vixra.org/abs/1102.0019 |

[4] | P. J. Steinhardt and D. Wesley, “Dark Energy, Inflation and Extra Dimensions,” Physical Review D, Vol. 79, No. 10, 2009, pp. 1010-1021. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.79.104026 |

[5] | F. Finelli, A. Cerioni and A. Gruppuso, “Is a Dissipative Regime For the Inflation in Agreement with Observa-tions?” In: J. Dumarchez, Y. Giraud-Heraud and J. T. T. Van, Eds., Cosmology, Guoi Publishers, Vietnam, 2008, pp. 283-286. |

[6] | F. Finelli, A. Cerioni and A. Gruppuso, “Is a Dissipative Regime during Inflation in Agreement with Observa-tions?” Physical Review D, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2008, Article ID: 021301. |

[7] | A. W. Beckwith, “Relic High Frequency Gravitational waves from the Big Bang, and How to Detect Them,” American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1103, 2009, pp. 571-581. |

[8] | D. K. Park, H. Kim and S. Tamarayan, “Nonvanishing Cosmological Constant of Flat Universe in Brane World Scenarios,” Physics Letters B, Vol. 535, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 5-10. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(02)01729-X |

[9] | T. Tchrakian and D. H. Presentation, “Gravitating Yang-Mills Fields,” Models of Gravity in Higher Dimen-sions, Bremen, 25-29 August 2008. |

[10] | A. W. Beckwith, “Implications for the Cosmological Landscape: Can Thermal Inputs from a Prior Universe Account for Relic Graviton Production?” American In-stitute of Physics Conference Proceedings, Vol. 969, 2008, pp. 1091-1102. |

[11] | A. W. Beckwith, “How to Use the Cosmological Schwin- ger Principle for Energy Flux, Entropy, and ‘Atoms of Space Time’, for Creating a Thermodynamics Treatment of Space-Time,” Journal of Physics: Conference Serie, Vol. 306, 2011, Article ID: 012064. |

[12] | A. Barvinsky, A. Kamenschick and A. Yu, “Thermody-namics from Nothing: Limiting the Cosmological Constant Landscape,” Physical Review D, Vol. 74, 2006, Article ID: 121502. |

[13] | G. T. Hooft, “How Instantons Solve the U(1) Problem,” Physical Reports, Vol. 142, No. 6, 1986, pp. 357-387. doi:10.1016/0370-1573(86)90117-1 |

[14] | D. Perkins, “Particle Astrophysics,” Oxford Master series in Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology, Oxford, 2005 |

[15] | Y. J. Ng, “Article: Spacetime Foam: From Entropy and Holography to Infinite Statistics and Nonlocality,” Entropy, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2008, pp. 441-461. doi: 10.3390/e10040441 |

[16] | L. Glinka, “Quantum Information from Graviton-Matter Gas,” Sigma, Vol. 3, 2007, p. 13 |

[17] | W. D. Goldberger, “Effective Field Theories and Gravita-tional Radiation,” In: F. Bernardeau, C. Grogean and J. Dalibard, Eds., Session 86, Elsevier, Particle Physics and Cosmology, the Fabric of Space time, Les Houches, Ox-ford, 2007, pp. 351-396. |

[18] | A. W. Beckwith, F. Y. Li, et al., “Is Octonian Gravity Relevant near the Planck Scale,” Nova Book company, 2011. http://vixra.org/abs/1101.0017 |

[19] | S. Lynch, “Dynamical Systems with Applications Using Mathematica,” Birkhauser, Boston, 2007. |

[20] | H. Binous, “Bifurcation Diagram for the Gauss Map from the Wolfram Demonstrations Project,” 2010 |

[21] | C. Grupen, “Astroparticle Physics,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2005. |

[22] | R. Durrer and M. Rinaldi, “Graviton Production in Non-Inflationary Cosmology,” Physical Review D, Vol. 79, No. 6, 2009, Article ID: 063507. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.79.063507 |

[23] | U. Sarkar, “Particle and Astroparticle Physics, Series in High Energy Physics, Cosmology, and Gravitation,” Taylor & Francis, Boca Racon, 2008 |

[24] | M. Alcubierre, “Introduction to 3+1 Numerical Relativity, International Series of Monographs on Physics,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008. |

[25] | A. W. Beckwith, “Energy Content of Gravition as a Way to Quantify both Entropy and Information Generation in the Early Universe,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 2, No. 2, February 2011, pp. 58-61. |

[26] | F. Li, M. Tang and D. Shi, “Electromagnetic Response of a Gaussian Beam to High Frequency Relic Gravitational Waves in Quintessential Inflationary Models,” Physical Review D, Vol. 67, 2003, pp. 1-17. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.67.104008 |

[27] | F. Li and N. Yang, “Phase and Polarization State of High Frequency Gravitational Waves,” Chinese Physics Letters, Vol. 236, No. 5, 2009, Article ID: 050402, pp. 1-4. |

[28] | L. Crowell, “Quantum Fluctuations of Space-Time,” World Scientific Series in Contemporary Chemical Physics, Singapore City, Vol. 25, 2005. |

[29] | L. Crowell, private communication with the author |

[30] | F. Y. Li, N. Yang, Z. Y. Fang, R. M. L. Baker Jr., G. V. Stephenson and H. Wen, “Signal Photon Flux and Back-ground Noise in a Coupling Electromagnetic Detecting System for High Frequency Gravitational Waves,” 2009. http://vixra.org/abs/0907.0030 |

[31] | A. W. Beckwith and L. Glinka, “The Arrow of Time Prob-lem: Answering if Time Flow Initially Favouritizes One Direction Blatantly,” Prespacetime Journal, Vol. 1, No. 9, November 2010, pp. 1358-1375. |

[32] | E. P. Verlinde, “On the Origins of Gravity and the Laws of Newton,” 2010. arXiv:1001.0785v1[hep-th] |

[33] | L. Seth, “Computational Capacity of the Universe”, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 88, No. 23, 2002, Article ID: 237901. |

[34] | P. Hunt and S. Sakar, “Multiple Inflation and the WMAP ‘glitches’,” Physical Review D, Vol. 70, No. 10, 2004, Article ID: 103518. |

[35] | G. Smoot; “CMB Observations and the Standard Model of the Universe ‘D. Chalonge’ School,” 11th Paris Cos-mology Colloquium, Paris, 18 August 2007. |

[36] | R. H. Sanders, “Observational Support for the Standard Model of the Early Universe,” In: E. Papantonopoulos, Ed., Lecture Notes in Physics, Springer-Verlag, Ber-lin-Heidelberg, Vol. 653, 2005, pp. 105-137. |

[37] | E. Kolb and S. Turner, “The Early Universe,” Westview Press, Chicago, 1994. |

[38] | E. Komatsu1, J. Dunkley, et al., “Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Cosmological Interpretation,” The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 180, No. 2, 2009, p. 330. |

[39] | M. Giovannini, “A Primer on the Physics of the Cosmic Microwave Background,” World Scientific, Pte. Ltd, Singapore City, 2008. |

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.