Share This Article:

Stress and Its Management

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101940    1,053 Downloads   2,058 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Stress is not a useful term for scientist because it is such a highly subjective phenomenon that has no single definition. It is always seen from a physicist and psychological perspective. Stress is a Latin word “stringer”, meaning to draw tight and it was used in the 17th century to describe hardships and afflictions. By 18th century stress denoted force, pressure strain or strong efforts referring primarily to an individual producing strain. Profounder of this view indicates that an individual’s stress level can be measured the same way we can measure physical strain upon a machine. Stress based on this perspective looks at stress as an outside stimulus.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Idoko, J. , Agoha, B. , Muyiwa, A. and Kunle, O. (2015) Stress and Its Management. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-8. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101940.

References

[1] Jones, F., Bright, J. and Clow, A. (2001) Stress: Myth, Theory, and Research. Pearson Education, New York, 4.
[2] Gibbons, C. (2012) Stress, Positive Psychology and the National Student Survey. Psychology Teaching Review, 18, 22-30.
[3] Fullagar, C.J., Knight, P.A. and Sovern, H.S. (2013) Challenge/Skill Balance, Flow, and Performance Anxiety. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 62, 236-259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00494.x
[4] Selye, H. (1983) The Stress Concept: Past, Present and Future. In: Cooper, C.L., Ed., Stress Research Issues for the Eighties, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1-20.
[5] Selye, H. (1974) Stress without Distress. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 171.
[6] Kobasa, S.C. (1982) The Hardy Personality: Toward a Social Psychology of Stress and Health. In: Sanders, G.S. and Suls, J., Eds., Social Psychology of Health and Illness, Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Hillsdale, 1-25.
[7] Stressor. Collins English Dictionary—Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from CollinsDictionary.com.
[8] Cohen, S. and Wills, T.A. (1985) Stress, Social Support, and the Buffering Hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310-357.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310
[9] Cohen, S., Frank, E., Doyle, W.J., Skoner, D.P., Rabin, B.S. and Gwaltney Jr., J.M. (1998) Types of Stressors That Increase Susceptibility to the Common Cold in Healthy Adults. Health Psychology, 17, 214-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.17.3.214
[10] Folkman, S. and Moskowitz, J. (2000) Stress, Positive Emotion, and Coping. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 115-118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00073
[11] Fevre, M.L., Kolt, G.S. and Matheny, J. (2006) Eustress, Distress and Their Interpretation in Primary and Secondary Occupational Stress Management Interventions: Which Way First? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 547-565.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940610684391
[12] Levo, L.M. (2003) Understanding Defense Mechanisms. Lukenotes, 7.
[13] Hargrove, M.B., Nelson, D.L. and Cooper, C.L. (2013) Generating Eustress by Challenging Employees: Helping People Savor Their Work. Organizational Dynamics, 42, 61-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2012.12.008
[14] Schneiderman, N., Ironson, G. and Siegel, S.D. (2005) Stress and Health: Psychological, Behavioral, and Biological Determinants. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 607-628.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.144141
[15] Greubel, J. and Kecklund, G. (2011) The Impact of Organizational Changes on Work Stress, Sleep, Recovery and Health. Industrial Health, 49, 353-364.
[16] Schneiderman, N., Ironson, G. and Siegel, S.D. (2005) Stress and Health: Psychological, Behavioral, and Biological Determinants. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 607-628.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.144141
[17] Herbert, T.B. and Cohen, S. (1993) Stress and Immunity in Humans: A Meta-Analytic Review. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 364-379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-199307000-00004
[18] Kemeny, M.E. (2003) The Psychobiology of Stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 124-129.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01246
[19] Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D. and Miller, G.E. (2007) Psychological Stress and Disease. JAMA, 298, 1685-1687.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.298.14.1685
[20] Campbell, J. (1983) Ambient Stressors. Environment and Behavior, 15, 355-380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916583153005
[21] Ogden, J. (2007) Health Psychology: A Textbook. 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 281-282.
[22] Miller, G., Chen, E. and Cole, S.W. (2009) Health Psychology: Developing Biologically Plausible Models Linking the Social World and Physical Health. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 501-524.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163551
[23] Selye, H. (1975) Implications of Stress Concept. New York State Journal of Medicine, 75, 2139-2145.
[24] Colman, A.M. (2009) “Displacement”: A Dictionary of Psychology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[25] Collingwood, J. (2007) The Physical Effects of Long-Term Stress. Psych Central.
http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-physical-effects-of-long-term-stress/000935
[26] Adapted from DSM-IV Adaptive Functioning Scale, APA, 1994.
[27] Valliant, G.E. (2000) Adaptive Mental Mechanisms. American Psychologist, 55, 89-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.89
[28] Shishehgar, S. (2013) The Relationship of Social Support and Quality of Life with the Level of Stress in Pregnant Women Using the PATH Model. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 15, 560-565.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.12174
[29] Uchino, B.N. (2009) Understanding the Links between Social Support and Physical Health: A Life-Span Perspective with Emphasis on the Separability of Perceived and Received Support. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 236-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01122.x
[30] Robertson, D. (2012) Build Your Resilience. Hodder, London.
[31] Sutarto, A.P., Wahab, M.N. and Zin, N.M. (2012) Resonant Breathing Biofeedback Training for Stress Reduction among Manufacturing Operators. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 18, 549-561.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2012.11076959

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.