Petroleum: From Basic Features to Hydrocarbons Bioremediation in Oceans


This review provides a general overview of petroleum characteristics and bioremediation strategies applications in oceanic environments contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons during exploration and transportation processes offshore. The vast oil reserves in the offshore fields have been explored for the production of light and heavy oil. The hydrocarbons exhibit very different physicochemical characteristics including those of hydrophobicity, molecular weight, melting and boiling points, toxicity and recalcitrance. This review is to highlight the basic oil characteristics, and to reveal the manner in which accidents can occur resulting in oil spills in the sea. We focus on hydrocarbon degradation through the application of bioremediation techniques, because this is considered more advantageous economically compared with the physical or chemical remediation techniques, as well as being more effective in contaminant removal. This study provides knowledge about strategies that can be applied in accidents involving oil spill on the ocean and thus boosts oil spill cleanup technology and lowers the environmental risks of offshore management of activities with petroleum.

Share and Cite:

Rodrigues, E. and Tótola, M. (2015) Petroleum: From Basic Features to Hydrocarbons Bioremediation in Oceans. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-17. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1102136.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Brown, D.W., Ramos, S.L., Friedman, A.J. and MacLeod, W.D.J. (1979) Analysis of Trace Levels of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Sediments Using a Solvent/Slurry Extration Procedure. In: Hertz, H.S. and Chesler, S.N., Eds., Trace Organic Analysis: A New Frontier in Analytical Chemistry, 9th Edition, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 161-167.
[2] Speight, J.G. (2007) The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum. 4th Edition, CRC Press, New York.
[3] Halliburton, A.D. (2001) Basic Petroleum Geology and Log Analysis. Halliburton Company.
[4] Bentley, R.W. (2002) Global Oil & Gas Depletion: An Overview. Energy Policy, 30, 189-205.
[5] Aguilera, R.F., Eggert, R.G., Lagos, C.C.G. and Tilton J.E. (2009) Depletion and the Future Availability of Petroleum Resources. Energy Journal, 30, 141-174.
[6] Stone, R.W. and ZoBell, C.E. (1952) Bacterial Aspects of the Origin of Petroleum. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 44, 2564-2567.
[7] Welte, D.H. and Yokler, A. (1980) Evolution of Sedimentar Basins from the Standpoint of Petroleum Origin and Accumulation—An Approach for a Quantitative Basin Study. Organic Geochemistry, 2, 1-8.
[8] Kissin, Y. (1987) Catagenesis and Composition of Petroleum: Origin of n-Alkanes and Isoalkanes in Petroleum Crudes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51, 2445-2457.
[9] Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H. (1984) Diagenesis, Catagenesis and Metagenesis of Organic Matter. In: Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H., Eds., Petroleum Formation and Occurrence, Springer-Verlag, New York, 69-73.
[10] Martinelli, G. (2009) Petroleum Geochemistry Petroleum Engineering—Upstream. UNESCO-EOLSS, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
[11] ANP (2011) Anuário Estatístico Brasileiro do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis. Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis.
[12] Altkins, P.W. (2001) Princípios de Química: Questionando a vida moderna e o meio ambiente. Artmed, Porto Alegre.
[13] Sharkey, T.D. (1996) Isoprene Synthesis by Plants and Animals. Endeavour, 20, 74-78.
[14] McCain Jr., W.D. (1990) Components of Naturally Occurring Petroleum Fluids. In: McCain Jr., W.D., Ed., Properties of Petroleum Fluids, PennWell Books, Tulsa, 1-45.
[15] Evans, S.R. and Rice, S.D. (1974) Effects of Oil on Marine Ecosystems: A Review for Administrators and Policy Makers. Fishery Bulletin, 72, 625-638.
[16] Gerlach, S.A. (1981) Marine Pollution: Diagnosis and Therapy. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
[17] Morrison, R.T. (1985) Quimica Organica. 2nd Edition, Fondo Edicativo Interamericano, S.A. de C.V., San Marcos.
[18] Milanelli, J.C.C. (1994) Efeitos do petróleo e da limpeza por jateamento de um costão rochoso da Praia de Bareque-çaba, São Sebastião, São Paulo. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.
[19] Zílio, E.L. and Pinto, U.B. (2002) Identification and Distribution of the Main Groups of Components Present in Brazilian Crude Oils. Boletins Técnicos da Petrobras, 45, 21-25.
[20] ANP (2012) Indústria Nacional do Petróleo e do Gás Natural. Anuário Estatístico Brasileiro do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis, Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis, 1-17.
[21] Petrobras (2012) Atuação no Pré-Sal.
[22] Kingston, P.F. (2002) Long-Term Environmental Impact of Oil Spills. Spill Science & Technology Bulletin, 7, 53-61.
[23] Gundlach, E.R. and Hayes, M.O. (1978) Vulnerability of Coastal Environments to Oil Spill Impacts. Marine Technology Society Journal, 12, 18-27.
[24] Silva, E.M., Peso-Aguiar, M.C., Navarro, M.F.T., Barros, C. and Chastinet, A. (1997) Impact of Petroleum Pollution on Aquatic Coastal Ecosystems in Brazil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 16, 112-118.
[25] Fay, J.A. (1971) Physical Processes in the Spread of Oil on a Water Surface. International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings, 1971, 463-467.
[26] Blumer, M., Sanders, H.L., Grassle, J.F. and Hampson, G.R. (1971) An Ocean of Oil: A Small Oil Spill. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 13, 37-41.
[27] Haritash, A.K. and Kaushik, C.P. (2009) Biodegradation Aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 169, 1-15.
[28] Eastcott, L., Shiu, W.Y. and Mackay, D. (1988) Environmentally Relevant Physical-Chemical Properties of Hydrocarbons: A Review of Data and Development of Simple Correlations. Oil and Chemical Pollution, 4, 191-216.
[29] Sabaté, J., Bayona, J.M. and Solanas, A.M. (2001) Photolysis of PAHs in Aqueous Phase by UV Irradiation. Chemosphere, 44, 119-124.
[30] Bridié, A.L., Wanders, T.H.H., Zegveld, W. and Van Der Heijde, H.B. (1980) Formation, Prevention and Breaking of Sea Water in Crude Oil Emulsions “Chocolate Mousses”. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 11, 343-348.
[31] Thingstad, T. and Pengerud, B. (1982) The Formation of “Chocolate Mousse” from Staffjord Crude Off and Seawater. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14, 214-216.
[32] Shiu, W.Y., Bobra, M., Bobra, A.M., Maijanen, A., Suntio, L. and Mackay, D. (1990) The Water Solubility of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products. Oil and Chemical Pollution, 7, 57-84.
[33] Fingas, M. and Fieldhouse, B. (2004) Formation of Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Application to Oil Spill Modelling. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 107, 37-50.
[34] Aske, N., Kallevik, H. and Sjöblom, J. (2002) Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Stability Studied by Critical Electric Field Measurements. Correlation to Physico-Chemical Parameters and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 36, 1-17.
[35] Miller, R.M., Singer, G.M., Rosen, J.D. and Bartha, R. (1988) Photolysis Primes Biodegradation of Benzo[a]pyrene. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 54, 1724-1730.
[36] Atlas, R.M. (1991) Microbial Hydrocarbon Degradation-Bioremediation Oil Spills. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 52, 149-156.
[37] Cury, J.D.E.C. (2002) Atividade microbiana e diversidades metabólica e genética em solo de mangue contaminado com petróleo. Master Degree Dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.
[38] Rodrigues, E.M., Kalks, K.H.M. and Tótola, M.R. (2015) Prospect, Isolation, and Characterization of Microorganisms for Potential Use in Cases of Oil Bioremediation along the Coast of Trindade Island, Brazil. Journal of Environmental Management, 156, 15-22.
[39] Brooks, J.M., Bernard, B.B., Sauer, T.C. and Abdel-Reheim, H. (1978) Environmental Aspects of a Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. Environmental Science & Technology, 12, 695-703.
[40] Leahy, J.G. and Colwell, R.R. (1990) Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons in the Environment. Microbiological Reviews, 54, 305-315.
[41] Ghazali, F.M., Rahman, R.N.Z.A., Salleh, A.B. and Basri, M. (2004) Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons in Soil by Microbial Consortium. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 54, 61-67.
[42] Xue, J., Yu, Y., Bai, Y., Wang, L. and Wu, Y. (2015) Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environemts: A Review. Current Microbiology, 71, 220-228.
[43] Colwell, R.R. and Walker, J.D. (1977) Ecological Aspects of Microbial Degradation of Petroleum in the Marine Environment. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 5, 423-445.
[44] Atlas, R.M. (1981) Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective. Microbiological Reviews, 45, 180-209.
[45] Samanta, S.K., Singh, O.V. and Jain, R.K. (2002) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation. Trends in Biotechnology, 20, 243-248.
[46] Hamme, J.D., Singh, A. and Ward, O.P. (2003) Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 67, 503-549.
[47] Ruberto, L., Vazquez, S.C. and Mac Cormack, W.P. (2003) Effectiveness of the Natural Bacterial Flora, Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on the Bioremediation of a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Antarctic Soil. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 52, 115-125.
[48] Beal, R. and Betts, W.B. (2000) Role of Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants in the Uptake and Mineralization of Hexadecane in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 89, 158-168.
[49] Mulligan, C.N. (2005) Environmental Applications for Biosurfactants. Environmental Pollution, 133, 183-198.
[50] Bordoloi, N.K. and Konwar, B.K. (2009) Bacterial Biosurfactant in Enhancing Solubility and Metabolism of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 170, 495-505.
[51] Das, N. and Chandran, P. (2011) Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview. Biotechnology Research International, 2011, Article ID: 941810.
[52] Nedwell, D. (1999) Effect of Low Temperature on Microbial Growth: Lowered Affinity for Substrates Limits Growth at Low Temperature. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 30, 101-111.
[53] Coulon, F., Pelletier, E., Gourhant, L. and Delille, D. (2005) Effects of Nutrient and Temperature on Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Sub-Antarctic Soil. Chemosphere, 58, 1439-1448.
[54] Eriksson, M., Sodersten, E., Yu, Z., Dalhammar, G. and Mohn, W.W. (2003) Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Low Temperature under Aerobic and Nitrate-Reducing Conditions in Enrichment Cultures from Northern Soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 275-284.
[55] Brakstad, O.G. and Bonaunet, K. (2006) Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Seawater at Low Temperatures (0-5 °C) and Bacterial Communities Associated with Degradation. Biodegradation, 17, 71-82.
[56] Mateles, R.I, Baruah, J.N. and Tannenbaum, S.R. (1967) Growth of a Thermophilic Bacterium on Hydrocarbons: A New Source of Single-Cell Protein. Science, 157, 1322-1323.
[57] Moore, M.A.S. and Owen, J.J.T. (1967) Thermophilic Bacterium Isolated on n-Tetradecane. Nature, 215, 1082-1083.
[58] Abbasian, F., Lockington, R., Mallavarapu, M. and Naidu, R. (2015) A Comprehensive Review of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation by Bacteria. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 176, 670-699.
[59] Perry, J.J. (1979) Microbial Cooxidations Involving Hydrocarbons. Microbiological Reviews, 43, 59-72.
[60] Acevedo, G.T. and McInerney, M.J. (1996) Emulsifying Activity in Thermophilic and Extremely Thermophilic Microorganisms. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 16, 1-7.
[61] Sarkar, D., Ferguson, M., Datta, R. and Birnbaum, S. (2005) Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Soils: Comparison of Biosolids Addition, Carbon Supplementation, and Monitored Natural Attenuation. Environmental Pollution, 136, 1871-1895.
[62] Atlas, R.M. and Bartha, R. (1973) Stimulated Biodegradation of Oil Slicks Using Oleophilic Fertilizers. Environmental Science & Technology, 7, 538-541.
[63] Tyagi, M., Fonseca, M.M.R. and Carvalho, C.C.C.R. (2011) Bioaugmentation and Biostimulation Strategies to Improve the Effectiveness of Bioremediation Processes. Biodegradation, 22, 231-241.
[64] Floodgate, G.D. (1995) Some Environmental Aspects of Marine Hydrocarbon Bacteriology. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 9, 3-11.
[65] Widada, H.N., Kasuga, K. and Yo, T.J. (2002) Molecular Detection and Diversity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Geographically Diverse Sites. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 58, 202-209.
[66] Rodrigues, D.F., Sakata, S.K., Comasseto, J.V., Bícego, M.C. and Pellizari, V.H. (2009) Diversity of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Klebsiella Strains Isolated from Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Estuaries. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 106, 1304-1314.
[67] Kostka, J.E., Prakash, O., Overholt, W.A., Green, S.J., Freyer, G., Canion, A., Delgardio, J., Norton, N., Hazen, T.C. and Huettel, M. (2011) Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, 7962-7974.
[68] Habe, H. and Omori, T. (2003) Genetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolism in Diverse Aerobic Bacteria. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 67, 225-243.
[69] Whitehead, A. (2013) Interactions between Oil-Spill Pollutants and Natural Stressors Can Compound Ecotoxicological Effects. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 53, 635-647.
[70] Ramachandran, S.D., Hodson, P.V., Khan, C.W. and Lee, K. (2004) Oil Dispersant Increases PAH Uptake by Fish Exposed to Crude Oil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 59, 300-308.
[71] McCay, D.F., Rowe, J.J., Whittier, N., Sankaranarayanan, S. and Etkin, D.S. (2004) Estimation of Potential Impacts and Natural Resource Damages of Oil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 107, 11-25.
[72] GESAMP (1993) Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution. Impact of Oil and Related Chemicals and Wastes on the Marine Environment. GESAMP Reports and Studies, No. 50, London.
[73] Ritter, L., Solomon, K., Sibley, P., Hall, K., Keen, P., Mattu, G. and Linton, B. (2002) Sources, Pathways, and Relative Risks of Contaminants in Surface Water and Groundwater: A Perspective Prepared for the Walkerton Inquiry. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 65, 1-142.
[74] La Rocca, C., Conti, L., Crebelli, R., Crochi, B., Iacovella, N., Rodriguez, F., Turrio-Baldassarri, L. and di Domenico, A. (1996) PAH Content and Mutagenicity of Marine Sediments from the Venice Lagoon. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 33, 236-245.
[75] Chen, G. and White, P.A. (2004) The Mutagenic Hazards of Aquatic Sediments: A Review. Mutation Research, 567, 151-225.
[76] Shimada, T. and Fujii-Kuriyama, Y. (2004) Metabolic Activation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Carcinogens by Cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1. Cancer Science, 95, 1-6.
[77] Mehdinia, A., Aghadadashi, V. and Fumani, N.S. (2015) Origin, Distribution and Toxicological Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments from the Bushehr Coast, The Persian Gulf. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 90, 334-338.
[78] Bartha, R. (1986) Biotechnology of Petroleum Pollutant Biodegradation. Microbial Ecology, 12, 155-172.
[79] Chiou, C.T., Mcgroddy, S.E., Kile, D.E., Survey, U.S.G. and Federal, D. (1998) Partition Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Soils and Sediments. Environmental Science & Technology, 32, 264-269.
[80] Simpson, C.D., Mosi, A.A., Cullen, W.R. and Reimer, K.J. (1996) Composition and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination in Surficial Marine Sediments from Kitimat Harbor, Canada. Science of the Total Environment, 181, 265-278.
[81] Reynaud, S. and Deschaux, P. (2006) The Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Immune System of Fish: A Review. Aquatic Toxicology, 77, 229-238.
[82] Carls, M.G., Babcock, M.M., Harris, P.M., Irvine, G.V., Cusick, J.A. and Rice, S.D. (2001) Persistence of Oiling in Mussel Beds after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Marine Environmental Research, 51, 167-190.
[83] Peterson (2001) The “Exxon Valdez” Oil Spill in Alaska: Acute, Indirect and Chronic Effects on the Ecosystem. Advances in Marine Biology, 39, 1-103.
[84] Peterson, C.H., Rice, S.D., Short, J.W., Esler, D., Bodkin, J.L., Ballachey, B.E. and Irons, D.B. (2003) Long-Term Ecosystem Response to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Science, 302, 2082-2086.
[85] Alonso-Alvarez, C., Pérez, C. and Velando, A. (2007) Effects of Acute Exposure to Heavy Fuel Oil from the Prestige Spill on a Seabird. Aquatic Toxicology, 84, 103-110.
[86] Engelhardt, F.R. (1983) Petroleum Effects on Marine Mammals. Aquatic Toxicology, 4, 199-217.
[87] Bao, M.T., Wang, L.N., Sun, P.Y., Cao, L.X., Zou, J. and Li, Y.M. (2012) Biodegradation of Crude Oil Using an Efficient Microbial Consortium in a Simulated Marine Environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64, 1177-1185.
[88] Khan, F.I., Husain, T. and Hejazi, R. (2004) An Overview and Analysis of Site Remediation Technologies. Journal of Environmental Management, 71, 95-122.
[89] Aburto-Medina, A., Adetutu, E.M., Aleer, S., Weber, J., Patil, S.S., Sheppard, P.J., Ball, A.S. and Juhasz, A.L. (2015) Comparison of Indigenous and Exogenous Microbial Populations during Slurry Phase Biodegradation of Long-Term Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil. Biodegradation, 23, 813-822.
[90] Harayama, S., Kishira, H., Kasai, Y. and Shutsubo, K. (1999) Petroleum Biodegradation in Marine Environments. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1, 63-70.
[91] Murado, M.A., Vázquez, J.A., Rial, D. and Beiras, R. (2011) Dose-Response Modelling with Two Agents: Application to the Bioassay of Oil and Shoreline Cleaning Agents. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 185, 807-817.
[92] Fucik, K.W. and Carr, K.A. (1994) Dispersed Oil Toxicity Tests with Biological Species Indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Continental Shelf Associates, Inc., US Department of the Interior, New Orleans.
[93] Beiras, E.H.R., Seaman, M.N.L. and France, A. (1999) The Assessment of Marine Pollution. Bioassays with Bivalve Embryos and Larvae. Advances in Marine Biology, 37, 1-178.
[94] Gundersen, D.T., Kristanto, S.W., Curtis, L.R., Al-Yakoob, S.N., Metwally, M.M. and Al-Ajmi, D. (1996) Subacute Toxicity of the Water-Soluble Fractions of Kuwait Crude Oil and Partially Combusted Crude Oil on Menidia beryllina and Palaemonetes pugio. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 31, 1-8.
[95] Blenkinsopp, S.A., Sergy, G., Wohlgeschaffent, K.D.O.E.G. and Li, K. (1997) Toxicity of the Weathered Crude Oil Used at the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE) and the Resultant Burn Residue. Spill Science & Technology Bulletin, 3, 277-280.
[96] Wolfe, M.F., Schwartz, G.J.B., Singaram, S. and Mielbrecht, E.E. (1999) Influence of Dispersants on the Bioavailability and Trophic Transfer of Phenanthrene to Algae and Rotifers. Aquatic Toxicology, 48, 13-24.
[97] Zhu, X., Venosa, A.D., Suidan, M.T. and Lee, K. (2001) Guidelines for the Bioremediation of Marine Shorelines and Freshwater Wetlands. US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati.
[98] Cantagallo, C., Milanelli, J.C.C. and Dias-Brito, D. (2007) Limpeza de ambientes costeiros brasileiros contaminados por petróleo: Uma revisão. Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 2, 1-12.
[99] Patrick, A., Craig, D.L., Sena, E., Magalhães, L. and Canielas, M. (2012) Técnicas de limpeza de vazamentos de petroleo em alto mar. Cadernos de Graduação—Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, 1, 75-86.
[100] Lessard, R.R. and Demarco, G. (2000) The Significance of Oil Spill Dispersants. Spill Science & Technology Bulletin, 6, 59-68.
[101] Atlas, R.M. and Hazen, T.C. (2011) Oil Biodegradation and Bioremediation: A Tale of the Two Worst Spills in U.S. History. Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 6709-6715.
[102] El Fantroussi, S. and Agathos, S.N. (2005) Is Bioaugmentation a Feasible Strategy for Pollutant Removal and Site Remediation? Current Opinion in Microbiology, 8, 268-275.
[103] Al-Saleh, E. and Akbar, A. (2015) Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kuwait Soil. Chemosphere, 120, 100-107.
[104] Yu, K.S.H., Wong, A.H.Y., Yau, K.W.Y., Wong, Y.S. and Tam, N.F.Y. (2005) Natural Attenuation, Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation on Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mangrove Sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 51, 1071-1077.
[105] Iwamoto, T. and Nasu, M. (2001) Current Bioremediation Practice and Perspective. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 92, 1-8.
[106] Xia, W.X., Li, J.C., Zheng, X.L., Bi, X.J. and Shao, J.L. (2006) Enhanced Biodegradation of Diesel Oil in Seawater Supplemented with Nutrients. Engineering in Life Sciences, 6, 80-85.
[107] Zahed, M.A., Aziz, H.A., Isa, M.H. and Mohajeri, L. (2010) Enhancement Biodegradation of n-Alkanes from Crude Oil Contaminated Seawater. International Journal of Environmental Research, 4, 655-664.
[108] Nikolopoulou, M., Eickenbusch, P., Pasadakis, N., Venieri, D. and Kalogerakis, N. (2013) Microcosm Evaluation of Autochthonous Bioaugmentation to Combat Marine Oil Spills. New Biotechnology, 30, 734-742.
[109] National Research Council (1994) Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup. National Academy Press, Washington DC.
[110] Pezeshki, S.R., Hester, M.W., Lin, Q. and Nyman, J.A. (2000) The Effects of Oil Spill and Clean-Up on Dominant US Gulf Coast Marsh Macrophytes: A Review. Environmental Pollution, 108, 129-139.
[111] Hambrick, G.A., Delaune, R.D. and Patrick, W.H. (1980) Effect of Estuarine Sediment pH and Oxidation-Reduction Potential on Microbial Hydrocarbon Degradation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 40, 365-369.
[112] Atlas, R.M. (1995) Petroleum Biodegradation and Oil Spill Bioremediation. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31, 178-182.
[113] Krumbolz, L.R., Caldwell, M.E. and Suflita, J.M. (1996) Biodegradation of “BTEX” Hydrocarbons under Anaerobic Conditions. In: Crawford, R.L. and Crawford, D.L., Eds., Bioremediation: Principles and Applications, Cambridge University Press, New York, 61-99.
[114] Táncsics, A., Szoboszlay, S., Szabó, I., Farkas, M., Kovács, B., Kukolya, J., Mayer, Z. and Kriszt, B. (2012) Quantification of Subfamily I.2.C Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase mRNA Transcripts in Groundwater Samples of an Oxygen-Li- mited BTEX-Contaminated Site. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 232-240.
[115] Gallego, J.R., González-Rojas, E., Peláez, A.I., Sánchez, J., García-Martínez, M.J., Ortiz, J.E., Torres, T. and Llamas, J.F. (2006) Natural Attenuation and Bioremediation of Prestige Fuel Oil along the Atlantic Coast of Galicia (Spain). Organic Geochemistry, 37, 1869-1884.
[116] McKew, B.A., Coulon, F., Yakimov, M.M., Denaro, R., Genovese, M., Smith, C.J., Osborn, A.M., Timmis, K.N. and McGenity, T.J. (2007) Efficacy of Intervention Strategies for Bioremediation of Crude Oil in Marine Systems and Effects on Indigenous Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria. Environmental Microbiology, 9, 1562-1571.
[117] Rahman, K.S.M., Thahira-Rahman, J., Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. and Banat, I.M. (2002) Towards Efficient Crude Oil Degradation by a Mixed Bacterial Consortium. Bioresource Technology, 85, 257-261.
[118] Nyer, E.K., Pauyne, F. and Sutherson, S. (2003) Discussion od Environment vs. Bacteria or Let’s Play “Name tha Bacteria”. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 23, 36-45.
[119] Mnif, I., Mnif, S., Sahnoun, R., Martouf, S., Ayedi, Y., Ellouze-Chaabouni, S. and Ghribi, D. (2015) Biodegradation of Diesel Oil by a Novel Microbial Consortium: Comparison between Co-Inoculation with Biosurfactants-Producing Strain and Exogenously Added Biosurfactants. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 14852-14861.
[120] Roane, T.M., Josephson, K.L. and Pepper, I.L. (2001) Dual-Bioaugmentation Strategy to Enhance Remediation of Cocontaminated Soil Dual-Bioaugmentation Strategy to Enhance Remediation of Cocontaminated Soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 3208-3215.
[121] Van Veen, J.A., Van Overbeek, L.S. and Van Elsas, J.D. (1997) Fate and Activity of Microorganisms Introduced into Soil. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 61, 121-135.
[122] Adams, G.O., Fufeyim, P.T., Okoro, S.E. and Ehinomen, I. (2015) Bioremediation, Biostimulation and Bioaugmention: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation, 3, 28-29.
[123] Gentry, T., Rensing, C. and Pepper, I. (2004) New Approaches for Bioaugmentation as a Remediation Technology. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 447-494.
[124] Goldstein, R.M., Mallory, L.M. and Alexander, M. (1985) Reasons for Possible Failure of Inoculation to Enhance Biodegradation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 50, 977-983.
[125] Orcutt, B.N., Joye, S.B., Kleindienst, S., Knittel, K., Ramette, A., Reitz, A., Samarkin, V., Treude, T. and Boetius, A. (2010) Impact of Natural Oil and Higher Hydrocarbons on Microbial Diversity, Distribution, and Activity in Gulf of Mexico Cold-Seep Sediments. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 57, 2008-2021.
[126] Thavasi, R., Jayalakshmi, S. and Banat, I.M. (2011) Effect of Biosurfactant and Fertilizer on Biodegradation of Crude Oil by Marine Isolates of Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium kutscheri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bioresource Technology, 102, 772-778.
[127] Ron, E.Z. and Rosenberg, E. (2014) Enhanced Bioremediation of Oil Spills in the Sea. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 27, 191-194.
[128] Venosa, A.D., Campo, P. and Suidan, M.T. (2010) Biodegradability of Lingering Crude Oil 19 Years after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 7613-7621.
[129] Nikolopoulou, M. and Kalogerakis, N. (2009) Biostimulation Strategies for Fresh and Chronically Polluted Marine Environments with Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 84, 802-807.
[130] Lubchenco, J., McNutt, M., Lehr, B., Sogge, M., Miller, M., Hammond, S. and Conner, W. (2010) Deepwater Horizon/BP Oil Budget: What Happened to the Oil? Oil Budget Calculator Science and Engineering Team (US), Washington DC.
[131] Tate, P.T., Shin, W.S., Pardue, J.H. and Jackson, W.A. (2011) Bioremediation of an Experimental Oil Spill in a Coastal Louisiana Salt Marsh. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223, 1115-1123.
[132] Warr, L.N., Friese, A., Schwarz, F., Schauer, F., Portier, R.J., Basirico, L.M. and Olson, G.M. (2013) Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Water Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints. Biotechnology Research International, 2013, Article ID: 704806.
[133] Lindstrom, J.E., Prince, R.C., Clark, J.C., Grossman, M.J., Yeager, T.R., Braddock, J.F. and Brown, E.J. (1991) Microbial Populations and Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Potentials in Fertilized Shoreline Sediments Affected by the T/V Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 57, 2514-2522.
[134] Crawford, M. (1990) Bacteria Effective in Alaska Cleanup. Science, 247, 1537.
[135] Pritchard, P.H., Mueller, J.G., Rogers, J.C., Kremer, F.V. and Glaser, J.A. (1992) Oil Spill Bioremediation: Experiences, Lessons and Results from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Alaska. Biodegradation, 3, 315-335.
[136] Button, D.K., Robertson, B.R., McIntosh, D. and Jüttner, F. (1992) Interactions between Marine Bacteria and Dissolved-Phase and Beached Hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58, 243-251.
[137] Koren, O., Knezevic, V., Ron, E.Z. and Rosenberg, E. (2003) Petroleum Pollution Bioremediation Using Water-Insoluble Uric Acid as the Nitrogen Source Petroleum Pollution Bioremediation Using Water-Insoluble Uric Acid as the Nitrogen Source. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 6337-6339.
[138] Nikolopoulou, M. and Kalogerakis, N. (2008) Enhanced Bioremediation of Crude Oil Utilizing Lipophilic Fertilizers Combined with Biosurfactants and Molasses. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56, 1855-1861.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.