The Impact of Insomnia Symptoms on Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome among the Urban Elderly in Northern Taiwan


Sleep complaints played a role in predicting the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general population. This cross-sectional survey was performed among elderly people (age ≥ 65 years) who underwent a health examination for senior citizens since March 2009 to November 2009. 1181 participants were surveyed, including 433 men (36.7%) and 748 women (63.3%). We aimed at the association between self-reported insomnia symptoms and risk factors of MetS in the elderly population living in northern Taiwan. The modified National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) was used for criteria of MetS. Logistic regression examined the impact on the MetS and its components according to individual insomnia symptoms and syndrome. The result showed that difficulty falling asleep (DFA), a specific symptom of insomnia, was significantly associated with MetS (OR: 1.42, 95% CI = 1.09 - 1.86). DFA increased the risk of abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglycemia. Frequent waking from sleep or dreamy increased the risk of abdominal obesity. Difficulty staying sleep increased the risk of hypertension. Other insomnia symptoms (non-refreshing sleep) were not associated with the increased risk of any MetS factors. Insomnia symptoms, including DFA, difficulty staying sleep, and frequent waking from sleep or dreamy increased the odds ratio of risk factors. Evaluating insomnia symptoms can help identify individuals that are at risk of MeS.

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Tsou, M. (2015) The Impact of Insomnia Symptoms on Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome among the Urban Elderly in Northern Taiwan. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-10. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1102013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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