Prevalence of Nsaids (Non Steroidal Inflammatory Drugs) as a Chemopreventive Agent in Different Types of Cancer: Retrospective Detail Studies

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101830   PDF   HTML   XML   898 Downloads   1,238 Views  


NSAIDs are the most widely used drugs globaly and are very famous for their analgesic, anti-in-flammatory and antipyretic actions. The use of NSAIDs in a variety of cancerous conditions is also approved now because of its versatile pharmacologic actions. In this research based study the use of NSAIDs as a chemointerceptive agent in a variety of cancers has been discussed. We aimed to know about the chemopreventive effects of NSAIDs that are a very diverse group of drugs having a lot of pharmacological actions. Now they are advised to prevent from various types of cancers by its different mechanisms and processes like inhibition of angiogenesis, COX-2 and it potentiates the process of apoptosis which is also a very favourable point for NSAIDs to work as a chemointerceptive agent. Heeding to the results aspirin could intercept from cancer (37%) and other NSAIDs used as acheminterceptive agents (28%). All of the NSAIDs have less side effects as compared to the drugs that are used during chemotherapy. The inhibition of COX-1 enzyme by NSAIDs is (15%) and that of COX-2 (85%). Studies suggested that the most frequent cancer in males is 14.5% of colorectal cancer and 10% prostate cancer while in female the most common cancers are 27% of breast cancer and 15% of colorectal cancer. 30% of ovarian cancer is also very common in many females of elder age groups. It was concluded that NSAIDs are a diverse group of drugs and advised to manipulate as a chemointerceptive agents in a variety of cancers. Besides these studies there are many limitations heeding to the chronic usage of NSAIDs, which should also be considered. The use of NSAIDs as a chemointerceptive agent requires more further experimental studies and needs clinical trials.

Share and Cite:

Ayub, M. and Islam, A. (2015) Prevalence of Nsaids (Non Steroidal Inflammatory Drugs) as a Chemopreventive Agent in Different Types of Cancer: Retrospective Detail Studies. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-11. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101830.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0 (2013) Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [database on the Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer.
[2] Siegel, R., Ma, J., Zou, Z., et al. (2014) Cancer Statistics. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 64, 9-29.
[3] Pohl, H. and Welch, H.G. (2005) The Role of Overdiagnosis and Reclassification in the Marked Increase of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Incidence. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 97, 142-146.
[4] Pohl, H., Sirovich, B. and Welch, H.G. (2010) Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Incidence: Are We Reaching the Peak? Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 19, 1468-1470.
[5] Thrift, A.P. and Whiteman, D.C. (2012) The Incidence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Continues to Rise: Analysis of Period and Birth Cohort Effects on Recent Trends. Annals of Oncology, 23, 3155-3162.
[6] Vaughan, T.L. and Fitzgerald, R.C. (2015) Precision Prevention of Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 12, 243-248.
[7] Engel, L.S., Chow, W.-H., Vaughan, T.L., et al. (2003) Population Attributable Risks of Esophageal and Gastric Cancers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 95, 1404-1413.
[8] Pandeya, N., Olsen, C.M. and Whiteman, D.C. (2013) Sex Differences in the Proportion of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases Attributable to Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Consumption. Cancer Epidemiology, 37, 579-584.
[9] Howlader, N., Noone, A., Krapcho, M., et al. (2014) SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. (Based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014)
[10] Cook, M.B., Chow, W.H. and Devesa, S.S. (2009) Oesophageal Cancer Incidence in the United States by Race, Sex, and Histologic Type, 1977-2005. British Journal of Cancer, 101, 855-859.
[11] Dubecz, A., Gall, I., Solymosi, N., Schweigert, M., Peters, J.H., Feith, M. and Stein, H.J. (2012) Temporal Trends in Long-Term Survival and Cure Rates in Esophageal Cancer: A SEER Database Analysis. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 7, 443-447.
[12] Spechler, S.J. (2002) Clinical Practice. Barrett’s Esophagus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 836-842.
[13] Ronkainen, J., Aro, P., Storskrubb, T., Johansson, S.E., Lind, T., Bolling-Sternevald, E., et al. (2005) Prevalence of Barrett’s Esophagus in the General Population: An Endoscopic Study. Gastroenterology, 129, 1825-1831.
[14] Kendall, B.J. and Whiteman, D.C. (2006) Temporal Changes in the Endoscopic Frequency of New Cases of Barrett’s Esophagus in an Australian Health Region. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 101, 1178-1182.
[15] Krishnan, K., Ruffin IV, M.T. and Brenner, D.E. (2000) Chemoprevention for Colorectal Cancer. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 33, 199-219.
[16] Shiff, J.S. and Rigas, B. (1997) Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Colorectal Cancer: Evolving Concepts of Their Chemopreventive Actions. Gastroenterology, 113, 1992-1998.
[17] Shiff, J.S. and Rigas, B. (1999) The Role of Cyclooxygenase Inhibition in the Antineoplastic Effects of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 190, 445-450.
[18] Hardman, J.G., Limbert, L.E., Molinoff, P.B., Ruddon, R.W. and Gilman, A.G., Eds. (1996) Goodman and Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.
[19] Bjorkman, D.J. (1999) Current Status of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) Use in the United States: Risk Factors and Frequency of Complications. American Journal of Medicine, 107, 3S-8S.
[20] Del Soldato, P., Sorrentino, R. and Pinto, A. (1999) NO-Aspirins: A Class of New Anti-Inflammatory and Antithrombotic Agents. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 20, 319-323.
[21] Wolfe, M.M. (1998) Future Trends in the Development of Safer Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. American Journal of Medicine, 105, 44S-52S.
[22] Fiorucci, S., Antonelli, E., Santucci, L., Morelli, O., Miglietti, M., Federici, B., Mannucci, R., Del Soldato, P. and Morelli, A. (1999) Gastrointestinal Safety of Nitric Oxide-Derived Aspirin Is Related to Inhibition of ICE-Like Cysteine Proteases in Rats. Gastroenterology, 116, 1089-1106.
[23] Qiao, L., Hanif, R., Sphicas, E., Shiff, S.J. and Rigas, B. (1998) Effect of Aspirin on Induction of Apoptosis in HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells. Biochemical Pharmacology, 55, 53-64.
[24] Shiff, S.J., Koutsos, M.I., Qiao, L. and Rigas, B. (1996) Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Inhibit the Proliferation of Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells: Effects on Cell Cycle and Apoptosis. Experimental Cell Research, 222, 179-188.
[25] Hanif, R., Feng, J., Shiff, S.J., Koutsos, M.I., Staiano-Coico, L. and Rigas, B. (1996) NSAIDs Inhibit the Growth of Colon Cancer Cells by a Prostaglandin-Independent Pathway. Biochemical Pharmacology, 52, 237-245.
[26] Rigas, B. and Shiff, S.J. (2000) Is an Effect on Cyclooxygenase Required for the Chemopreventive Effect of NSAIDs in Colon Cancer? A Model Reconciling the Current Contradiction. Medical Hypotheses, 54, 210-215.
[27] Bakm, A.W., McKnight, W., Li, P., Del Soldato, P., Calignano, A., Cirino, G. and Wallace, J.L. (1998) Cyclooxygenase-Independent Chemoprevention with an Aspirin Derivative in a Rat Model of Colonic Adenocarcinoma. Life Sciences, 62, 367-373.
[28] Garcia-Rodriguez, L.A. and Huerta-Alvarez, C. (2001) Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer among Long-Term Users of Aspirin and Non-Aspirin Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. Epidemiology, 12, 88-93.
[29] Rosenberg, L., Palmer, J.R., Zauber, A.G., Warshauer, M.E., Stolley, P.D. and Shapiro, S. (1991) A Hypothesis: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Reduce the Incidence of Large Bowel Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 83, 355-358.
[30] Rosenberg, L., Louik, C. and Shapiro, S. (1998) Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use and Reduced Risk of Large Bowel Carcinoma. Cancer, 82, 2326-2333.<2326::AID-CNCR5>3.0.CO;2-Q
[31] Giovannucci, E., Rim, E.B., Stampfer, M.J., Colditz, G.A., Ascherio, A. and Willett, W.C. (1994) Aspirin Use and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Adenoma in Male Health Professionals. Annals of Internal Medicine, 121, 241-246.
[32] Giovannucci, E., Egan, K., Hunter, D.J., Stampfer, M.J., Colditz, G.A., Ascherio, A., Willett, W.C. and Speizer, F.E. (1995) Aspirin and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 333, 609-614.
[33] Berkel, H.J., Holcombe, R.F., Middlebrooks, M. and Kannan, K. (1996) Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Colorectal Cancer. Epidemiologic Reviews, 18, 205-217.
[34] Thun, M.J., Namboodiri, M.M. and Heath Jr., C.W. (1991) Aspirin Use and Reduced Risk of Fatal Colon Cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 1593-1596.
[35] Muscat, J.E., Stellman, S.D. and Wynder, E.L. (1994) Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Colorectal Cancer. Cancer, 74, 1847-1854.
[36] Pollard, M. and Luckert, P.H. (1980) Indomethacin Treatment of Rats with Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Intestinal Tumors. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 64, 1323-1327.
[37] Pollard, M. and Luckert, P.H. (1984) Effect of Piroxicam on Primary Intestinal Tumors Induced in Rats by N-Methylnitrosourea. Cancer Letters, 25, 117-121.
[38] Metzger, U., Meier, J., Uhlshmid, G. and Weihe, H. (1984) Influence of Various Prostaglandin Synthesis Inhibitors on DMH-Induced Rat Colon Cancer. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 27, 366-369.
[39] Reddy, B.S., Maruyama, H. and Kelloff, G. (1987) Dose-Related Inhibition of Dietary Piroxicam, a Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug, during Different Stages of Rat Colon Tumor Development. Cancer Research, 47, 5340-5346.
[40] Reddy, B.S., Nayini, J., Tokumo, K., Rigotty, J., Zang, E. and Kelloff, G. (1990) Chemoprevention of Colon Carcinogenesis by Concurrent Administration of Piroxicam, a Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug with D,L-a-diftuoromethylor-nithine, an Ornithine Decarboxylase Inhibitor, in Diet. Cancer Research, 50, 2562-2568.
[41] Rubio, C.A. (1984) Antitumoral Activity of Indomethacin on Experimental Esophageal Tumors. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 72, 705-707.
[42] Takahashi, M., Furukawa, F., Toyoda, K., Sato, H., Hasegawa, R., Imaida, K. and Hayashi, Y. (1990) Effects of Various Prostaglandin Synthesis Inhibitors on Pancreatic carcinogenesis in Hamsters after Initiation with N-Nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine. Carcinogenesis, 11, 393-395.
[43] Tanaka, T., Kojima, T., Okumura, A., Sugie, S. and Mori, H. (1993) Inhibitory Effect of the Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Indomethacin and Piroxicam on 2-Acetylaminofluorene-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Male ACI/N Rats. Cancer Letters, 68, 111-118.
[44] Jalbert, G. and Castonguay, A. (1992) Effects of NSAIDs on NNK-Induced Pulmonary and Gastric Tumorigenesis in A/J Mice. Cancer Letters, 66, 21-28.
[45] Thun, M.S., Namboodiri, M.M., Calle, E.E., Flanders, M.D. and Heath Jr., C.W. (1993) Aspirin Use and Risk of Fatal Cancer. Cancer Letters, 53, 1322-1327.
[46] Gridley, G., McLaughlin, J.K., Ekbom, A., Klareskog, L., Adami, H.O., Hacker, D.G., Hoover, R. and Fraumeni, J.F. (1993) Incidence of Cancer among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 85, 307-311.
[47] Funkhouser, E.M. and Sharp, G.B. (1995) Aspirin and Reduced Risk of Esophageal Carcinoma. Cancer, 76, 1116-1119.<1116::AID-CNCR2820760703>3.0.CO;2-I
[48] Farrow, D.C., Vaughan, T.L., Hansten, P.D., Stanford, J.L., Risch, H.A., Gammon, M.D., Chow, W.H., Dubrow, R., Ahsan, H., Mayne, S.T., Schoenberg, J.B., West, A.B., Rotterdam, H., Fraumeni Jr., J.F. and Blot, W.J. (1998) Use of Aspirin and Other Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 7, 97-102.
[49] Shapiro, S. (1982) Case-Control Surveillance. In: Strom, B.L., Ed., Pharmacoepidemiology, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 301-322.
[50] Schreinemachers, D.M. and Everson, R.B. (1994) Aspirin Use and Lung, Colon, and Breast Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Study. Epidemiology, 5, 138-146.
[51] World Health Organization (2012) World Health Statistics 2012.
[52] Flegal, K.M., Carroll, M.D., Kit, B.K. and Ogden, C.L. (2012) Prevalence of Obesity and Trends in the Distribution of Body Mass Index among US Adults, 1999-2010. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 307, 491-497.
[53] Calle, E.E., Rodriguez, C., Walker-Thurmond, K. and Thun, M.J. (2003) Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality from Cancer in a Prospectively Studied Cohort of US Adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 1625-1638.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.