Share This Article:

Multidimensionality and Complexity of Role Stress: An Empirical Study of the Public and Private Sector Managers in Kolkata

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101744    906 Downloads   1,898 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

During the past decade, the public and private sector organizations have undergone rapid and striking changes due to emergence of globalization, liberalization and increased competition has given rise to high level of role stress among employees in the both sectors. Role stress is a pattern of reactions that occur when workers are presented with work demands unmatched to their knowledge and skills that challenge their ability to cope. Stress occurs in many different circumstances, but is particularly strong when a person’s ability to control demands at work are threatened. Although individual and organizational characteristics play a role in the development of role stress, yet the majority agree that role stress results from the interaction between the worker and the conditions of work. A study was conducted on 200 managers’ equiproportinately drawn from 40 public and private sector organizations in Kolkata, using General Information Schedule and Organizational Role Stress Scale [1]. Findings showed that the nature and distribution of Organizational Role Stress Scale Scores revealed dissimilarities among the four sample groups, and moderate level of organizational role stress was the general characteristic feature of the managers. Some components for organizational role stress in organization showed reportable variation with rank position (senior/junior) of the managers.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Mukherjee, S. (2015) Multidimensionality and Complexity of Role Stress: An Empirical Study of the Public and Private Sector Managers in Kolkata. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-14. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101744.

References

[1] Pareek, U. (1983) Organizational Role Stress Scale. Manual, Navina Pub., Ahmedabad.
[2] Kahn, R.L., Wolfe, D.M., Quinn, R.P., Snoek, J.D. and Rosenthal, R.A. (1964) Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity. Wiley, New York.
[3] Srivastava, A.K. (2007) Stress in Organisational Roles: Individual and Organisational Implications. Icfaian Journal of Management Research, 6, 64-74.
[4] Fisher, C. and Gitelson, R. (1983) A Meta-Analysis of the Correlates of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 320-333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.2.320
[5] Olpin, M. and Hesson, M. (2010) Stress Management for Life: A Research-Based Experiential Approach. 2nd Edition, Wardsworth/Cengage Learning, Belmont.
[6] Pestonjee, D.M. (1992) Stress and Coping: The Indian Experience. Sage Publications.
[7] Schwarzer, R. (2009) Stress and Coping Resources: Theory and Review. Freie University. Berlin.
http://web.fuberlin.de/gesund/publicat/ehps_cd/health/stress.htm
[8] Michie, S. (2002) Causes and Management of Stress at Work. Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 59, 67-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.59.1.67
[9] Bateman, G. (2009) Employee Perceptions of Co-Worker Support and Its Effect on Job Satisfaction, Work Stress and Intention to Quit. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Canterbury. Cited in Khanna, S. (2015) Organisational Role Stress (ORS) and Life Satisfaction among Female Doctors. International Conference on Technology and Business Management, Emirates, 23-25 March 2015, 601-606.
[10] Correa, A.P. and Ferreira, M.C. (2011) The Impact of Environmental Stressors and Types of Work Contract on Occupational Stress. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14, 251-262.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/rev_SJOP.2011.v14.n1.22
[11] Aasland, O.G. and Forde, R. (2005) Impact of Feeling Responsible for Adverse Events on Doctors’ Personal and Professional Lives: The Importance of Being Open to Criticism from Colleagues. BMJ Quality & Safety, 14, 13-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2002.003657
[12] Mukherjee, S.B. and Ray, A. (2009) Innovative Work Behaviour of Managers: Implications Regarding Stressful Challenges of Modernized Public- and Private-Sector Organizations. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 18, 101-107.
[13] Beehr, T.A. and Franz, T. (1987) The Current Debate about the Meaning of Job Stress. In: Ivancevich, J.M. and Ganster, D.C., Eds., Job Stress: From Theory of Suggestion, Haworth Press, New York, 5-18.
[14] Beehr, T.A. and McGrath, J.E. (1992) Social Support Occupational Stress and Anxiety. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 5, 7-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615809208250484
[15] Wallgreen, L.G. and Hanse, J.J. (2007) Job Characteristics, Motivators and Stress among Information Technology Consultants: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 37, 51-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2006.10.005
[16] Dupre, K.E. and Day, A.L. (2007) The Effects of Supportive Management and Job Quality on the Turnover Intentions and Health of Military Personnel. Human Resource Management, 46, 185-201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20156
[17] Kagan, J. (1972) The Psychologists. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[18] Widmer, C. (1993) Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and Role Overload on Boards of Directors of Non-Profit Human Service Organizations. Non-Profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 22, 339-356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0899764093224006
[19] Yousef, D.A. (2000) The Interactive Effects of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity on Job Satisfaction and Attitudes toward Organizational Change: A Moderated Multiple Regression Approach. International Journal of Stress Management, 7, 289-303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009593913606
[20] Tubre, T.C. and Collins, J.M. (2000) A Meta-Analysis of the Relationships between Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict, and Job Performance. Journal of Management, 26, 155-169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600104
[21] Mohr, A.T. and Puck, J.F. (2007) Role Conflict, General Manager Job Satisfaction and Stress and the Performance of IJVs. European Management Journal, 25, 25-35.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2006.11.003
[22] Wu, L. and Norman, I.J. (2006) An Investigation of Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Role Conflict and Ambiguity in a Sample of Chinese Undergraduate Nursing Students. Nurse Education Today, 26, 304-314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2005.10.011
[23] Katz, D. and Kahn, R.L. (1966) The Social Psychology of Organizations. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
[24] Pareek, U. (1993) Making Organizational Roles Effective. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
[25] Jena, P. and Pradhan, S. (2011) Impact of Organizational Role Stress among Library Professionals of Odisha: A Study. PEARL—A Journal of Library and Information Science, 5, 1-8.
[26] Fernandes, C.F.V., Kumar, S. and Mekoth, N. (2009) Gender Differences in Stress among Bank Officers of Private and Public Sectors. The ICFAI University Journal of Organizational Behavior, 8, 63-69.
[27] Dasgupta, H. and Kumar, S. (2009) Role Stress among Doctors Working in a Government Hospital in Shimla (India). European Journal of Social Sciences, 9, 356-370.
[28] Aziz, M. (2003) Organizational Role Stress among Indian Information Technology Professionals. Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 10, 31-39.
[29] Cox, T. and Griffiths, A. (2010) Work Related Stress: A Theoretical Perspective. In: Leka, S. and Houdmont, J., Eds., Occupational Health Psychology, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 31-56.
[30] Pareek, U. (1976) Inter-Role Exploration. In: Pfeiffer, J.W. and Jones, J.E., Eds., The 1976 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators, University Associates, San Diego, 211-224.
[31] Pareek, U. (2003) Training Instruments in HRD and OD. Tata McGraw Hill, Bombay.
[32] Mintzberg, H. (1983) Power in and Around Organizations. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River.
[33] Pestonjee, D.M. and Pareek, U. (1997) Studies in Organizational Role Stress and Coping. D. K. Publishers, New Delhi.
[34] Zaltman, G., Duncan, R. and Holbeck, J. (1973) Innovation and Organizations. John Wiley, New York, 45-68.
[35] Lundberg, U. (2000) Workplace Stress. In: Fink, G., Ed., Encyclopedia of Stress, Volume 3, Academic Press, San Diego, 684.
[36] Abramis, D.J. (1994) Relationship of Job Stressors to Job Performance: Linear or an Inverted-U. Psychological Reports, 75, 547-558.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1994.75.1.547
[37] Ruhaini, I. and Hassim, I.N. (2006) The Prevalence of Occupational Stress among Doctors in Kuala Lumpur Hospital in 1995-1996. Journal of Community Health (Malaysia), 12.
[38] Burke, J.M. (1986) The Relationship between Type-A Behaviour, Role Stress, Job Enrichment and Burnout among College Counselors. Dissertation Abstract International, 46, 3588.
[39] Ahmad, S., James, J. and Ahmad, S. (1991) Organizational Role Stress: A Psychological Study of Middle Managers. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies, 7, 43-48.
[40] Cox, T. (1978) Stress. MacMillan, London.
[41] Behrman, D.N. and Perreault, W.D. (1984) A Role Stress Model of the Performance and Satisfaction of Industrial Salespersons. Journal of Marketing, 48, 9-21.
[42] Jex, S.M. (1998) Stress and Job Performance. Sage Publications, London.
[43] Glazer, S. and Beehr, T.A. (2005) Consistency of Implications of Three Role Stressors across Four Countries. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 26, 467-487.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.326
[44] Bettencourt, L.A. and Brown, S.W. (2003) Role Stressors and Customer Oriented Boundary-Spanning Behaviours in Service Organizations. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31, 394-408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0092070303255636
[45] Beehr, T.A., Walsh, J.T. and Taber, T.D. (1976) Relationship of Stress to Individually and Organizationally Valued States: Higher Order Needs as a Moderator. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 41-47.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.61.1.41
[46] Narayanan, L., Menon, S. and Spector, P.E. (1999) Stress in the Workplace: A Comparison of Gender and Occupation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 63-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199901)20:1<63::AID-JOB873>3.0.CO;2-J
[47] Shahu, R. and Gole, S.V. (2008) Effect of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Performance: An Empirical Study. AIMS International Journal of Management, 2, 237-246.
[48] Knight, D.K., Kim, H.-J. and Crutsinger, C. (2007) Examining the Effects of Role Stress on Customer Orientation and Job Performance of Retail Salespeople. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 35, 381-391.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09590550710743735
[49] Pestonjee, D.M. and Singh, U.B. (1982) Job Satisfaction as a Function of Role Stress, Locus of Control, Participation and Organizational Climate in an Electric Supply Company. Manuscript, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.
[50] Pestonjee, D.M. and Singh, U.B. (1983) EDP Managers: An Organizational Behaviour Study. Manuscript, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.
[51] Kemery, E.R., Bedeian, A.G., Mossholder, K.W. and Touliatos, J. (1985) Outcomes of Role Stress: A Multi-Sample Constructive Replication. Academy of Management Journal, 28, 363-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256206
[52] Montgomery, M.R. (2012) Does an Absence of Managerial Communication Negatively Influence Job Satisfaction? A Quantitative Examination of the Correlation between Job Satisfaction and Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity among High-Tech Employees. CAPELLA University, Pub No. 3461658.
[53] Calisir, F. and Gumussoy, C.A. (2011) Factors Affecting Intention to Quit among IT Professionals in Turkey. Personnel Review, 40, 514-533.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483481111133363
[54] Beehr, T.A. (1995) Psychological Stress in the Workplace. Routledge, London.
[55] Beehr, T.A. and Glazer, S. (2005) Organizational Role Stress. In: Barling, J., Kelloway, E.K. and Frone, M.R., Eds., Handbook of Work Stress, Sage, Thousand Oaks, 7-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412975995.n2
[56] Jackson, S. and Schuler, R. (1985) A Meta-Analysis and Conceptual Critique of Research on Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict in Work Setting. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 36, 16-78.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(85)90020-2
[57] Linzer, M., Gerrity, M., Douglas, J.A. and Mckurry, J.E. (2002) Physicians Stress: Results from the Physicians Work Life Study. Stress & Health, 18, 37-42.
[58] Jones, M.D. (2006) Which Is a Better Predictor of Job Performance: Job Satisfaction or Life Satisfaction. Journal of Behaviour and Applied Measurement, 8, 20-42.
[59] Greguras, G.L. and Diefendorff, J.M. (2010) Why Does Proactive Personality Predict Employee Life Satisfaction and Work Behaviour? A Field Investigation of the Mediating Role of the Self-Concordance Model. Personnel Psychology, 63, 539-560.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01180.x
[60] Boles, J.S., Wood, J.A. and Johnson, J. (2003) Interrelationships of Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Work-Family Conflict with Different Facets of Job Satisfaction and the Moderating Effects of Gender. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 23, 99-113.
[61] LeRouge, C., Nelson, A. and Blanton, J.E. (2006) The Impact of Role Stress Fit and Self-Esteem on the Job Attitudes of IT Professionals. Information & Management, 43, 928-938.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2006.08.011
[62] Mulki, J.P., Lassk, F.G. and Jaramillo, F. (2008) The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Sales Person Work over Load and Pay Satisfaction. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 28, 285-297.
[63] Verma, S. (2008) Stress Questionnaire for Lawyers: Implications of Burnout and Psychosocial Stressors for the Job Satisfaction among Male and Female Lawyers. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla.
[64] Cuhadar, M.T. (2008) The Sectoral Analyses of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity with Job Satisfaction and Organisational Commitment: A Study in the East Mediterranean Region. Journal of Global Strategic Management, 2, 108-119.
[65] Ahsan, N., Abdullah, Z., Fie, D.Y.G. and Alam, S.S. (2009) A Study of Job Stress on Job Satisfaction among University Staff in Malaysia: Empirical Study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 8, 121-131.
[66] Sankpal, S., Negi, P. and Vashishtha, J. (2010) Organisational Role Stress of Employees: Public vs. Private Banks. Indian Journal of Management, 3, 4-16.
[67] Bano, B. and Jha, R.K. (2012) Organizational Role Stress among Public and Private Sector Employees: A Comparative Study. The Lahore Journal of Business, 1, 23-36.
[68] Christiana M, B.V. and Mahalakshmi, V. (2013) Role Stress and Its Impact on Public and Private Sector Managers in Chennai: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Management & Business Studies, 3, 22-26.
[69] Khanna, S. (2015) Organisational Role Stress (ORS) and Life Satisfaction among Female Doctors. Proceedings of the International Conference on Technology and Business Management, Emirates, 23-25 March 2015, 601-606.
[70] Beehr, T.A. and Newman, J.E. (1978) Job Stress, Employee Health and Organizational Effectiveness: A Facet Analysis, Model and Literature Review. Personnel Psychology, 31, 665-699.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1978.tb02118.x
[71] Payne, R. (1988) Individual Differences in the Study of Occupational Stress. In: Cooper, C.L. and Payne, R., Eds., Causes, Coping, and Consequences of Stress at Work Chapter 7, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
[72] Swanson, V. and Power, K.G. (1998) Occupational Stress and Family: A Comparison of Male and Female Doctors. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 71, 237-260.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1998.tb00675.x
[73] Tankha, G. (2006) A Comparative Study of Role Stress in Government and Private Hospital Nurses. Journal of Health Management, 8, 11-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097206340500800102
[74] Masood, R.Z. (2011) Stress Management: A Key to Employee Retention. Management Insight, 7, 100-111.
[75] Clayson, D.E. and Frost, T.F. (1984) Impact of Stress and Locus of Control on the Concept of Self. Psychological Reports, 55, 919-926.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1984.55.3.919
[76] Chandriah, K., Agrawal, M. and Manoharan, N. (2003) Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Managers. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 7, 6-11.
[77] Saravanan, P. and Lawrence, M.A. (2007) Occupational Stress among the Librarians of Arts and Science Colleges. Library Progress (International), 27, 51-57.
[78] Fried, Y., Arie, S., Gilboa, S. and Cooper, C.L. (2008) The Mediating Effects of Job Satisfaction and Propensity to Leave on Role Stress-Job Performance Relationships: Combining Meta-Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. International Journal of Stress Management, 15, 305-328.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0013932
[79] Anton, C. (2009) The Impact of Role Stress on Workers’ Behaviour through Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Psychology, 44, 187-194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207590701700511
[80] Malik, N. (2011) A Study on Occupational Stress Experienced by Private and Public Bank Employees in Quetta City. African Journal of Business Management, 5, 3063-3070.
[81] Pareek, U. (2002) Training Instruments in HRD and OD. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Ltd., New Delhi.
[82] Chauhan, D. and Chauhan, S.P. (2005) Stress: Can It Be a Motivating Force for Realizing One’s Potential? Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 40, 410-419.
[83] Dhadda, N. (1990) A Study of the Relationship of Role Stress, Job Involvement and Personality Types in Aviation and Railway Officials. Unpublished Master’s Dissertation, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur.
[84] Singh, A.P. and Singh, B. (1997) Correlates of Psychological Strain and Coping Behaviour. In: Pestonjee, D.M. and Pareek, U., Eds., Studies in Organizational Role Stress and Coping, Rawat Publication, Jaipur, 122-136.
[85] Sharma, T. (1987) Differential Effects of Organizational Climate on Job Satisfaction, Sense of Participation, and Role Stress. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad.
[86] Mohanty, S. and Mishra, P.K. (1998) Occupational Stress: A Comparative Study of Public & Private Sector. Social Science International, 14, 29-39.
[87] Srivastava, S. (2009) Locus of Control as a Moderator for Relationship between Organizational Role Stress and Managerial Effectiveness. Vision-The Journal of Business Perspective, 13, 49-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097226290901300405

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.