Vein of Galen Malformations: Case Report & Review


Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs) are rare congenital abnormalities that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. VGAMs present in different way from vein of Galen aneurysmal dilatations (VGADs). The VGAMS have a parenchymal arteriovenous malformation that drains through the vein of Galen whereas VGADs may present with intracranial hemorrhage. In neonates VGAMs result in high-output cardiac failure. Surgery offers little improvement, with fatal outcomes in 80% to 100% of cases.

Share and Cite:

Goyal, S. , Goyal, S. , Saini, I. and Bishnoi, S. (2015) Vein of Galen Malformations: Case Report & Review. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-4. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101478.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] O’Brien, M. and Schechter, M. (1970) Arteriovenous Malformations Involving the Galenic System. The American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine, 110, 50-55.
[2] Takashima, S. and Becker, L.E. (1980) Neuropathology of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations in Children. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 43, 380-385.
[3] Nicholson, A.A., Hourihan, M.D. and Hayward, C. (1989) Arteriovenous Malformations Involving the Vein of Galen. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 64, 1653-1655.
[4] McElhinney, D.B., Halbach, V.V., Silverman, N.H., Dowd, C.F. and Hanley, F.L. (1998) Congenital Cardiac Anomalies with Vein of Galen Malformations in Infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 78, 548-551.
[5] Lasjaunias, P., Rodesch, G., Terbrugge, K., et al. (1989) Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformations. Report of 36 Cases Managed between 1982 and 1988. Acta Neurochirurgica, 99, 26-37.
[6] Ahmad, M., Shuaib Mir, S., Wahab, S. and Rizvi, I. (2012) Vein of Galen Malformation. BMJ Case Reports.
[7] Hoffman, H.J., Chuang, S., Hendrick, E.B. and Humphreys, R.P. (1982) Aneurysms of the Vein of Galen. Experience at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. Journal of Neurosurgery, 57, 316-322.
[8] Padget, D.H. (1956) The Cranial Venous System in Man in Reference to Development, Adult Configuration, and Relation to the Arteries. The American Journal of Anatomy, 98, 307-355.
[9] Johnston, I.H., Whittle, I.R., Besser, M. and Morgan, M.K. (1987) Vein of Galen Malformation: Diagnosis and Management. Neurosurgery, 20, 747-758.
[10] Yamashita, Y., Abe, T., Ohara, N., et al. (1992) Successful Treatment of Neonatal Aneurysmal Dilatation of the Vein of Galen: The Role of Prenatal Diagnosis and Trans-Arterial Embolization. Neuroradiology, 34, 457-459.
[11] Campi, A., Scotti, G., Filippi, M., Gerevini, S., Strigimi, F. and Lasjaunias, P. (1996) Antenatal Diagnosis of Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation: MR Study of Fetal Brain and Postnatal Follow-Up. Neuroradiology, 38, 87-90.
[12] Goelz, R., Mielke, G., Gonser, M., et al. (1996) Vein of Galen Malformation: Prenatal Diagnosis and Noninvasive Procedure. Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie, 200, 72-75.
[13] Ciricillo, S.F., Schmidt, K.G., Silverman, N.H., Hieshima, G.B., Higashida, R.T., Halbach, V.V., et al. (1990) Serial Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Neonatal Vein of Galen Malformations to Assess the Efficacy of Interventional Neuroradiological Procedures. Neurosurgery (Baltimore), 27, 544-548.
[14] The Arteriovenous Malformation Study Group (1999) Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain in Adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 340, 1812-1818.
[15] Mitchella, P.J., Rosenfelda, J.V., Dargavillea, P., Loughnana, P., Ditchfielda, M.R., Frawleya, G., et al. (2001) Endovascular Management of Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformations Presenting in the Neonatal Period. AJNR, 22, 1403-1409.
[16] Chatterjee, S. (2009) Antiepileptic Drugs. Molecules of the Millennium. Indian Journal of Pharmacology.
[17] Meyers, P.M., Halbach, V.V., Phatouros, C.P., Dowd, C.F., Malek, A.M., Lempert, T.E., et al. (2000) Hemorrhagic Complications in Vein of Galen Malformations. Annals of Neurology, 47, 748-755.<748::AID-ANA7>3.0.CO;2-7
[18] Alexander, M.J. and Spetzler, R.F. (2005) Pediatric Neurovascular Disease: Surgical, Endovascular, and Medical Management. Thieme Medical Publishers, New York.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.