Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Well Water in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State


The study was carried out to determine the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of well water from Kaduna metropolis. The physiochemical quality of the water was analyzed using FAO (1997) method and the result obtained showed that the water sample was acidic, some neutral but they all fell within the range as recommended by WHO, and NAFDAC, the water sample fell within the recommended range for Nitrite, turbidity, conductivity and chloride. The bacteriological quality of the water was also determined by most probable number technique, the total coliform count and the differential E. coli count in which several tubes with diluted buffered solution to dilute the water sample and then incubated for 24 hrs, this is called the presumptive test while for the confirmation test, positive tubes from the presumptive test were inoculated into separate growth medium for total coliform and E. coli and then incubated. The results obtained showed that total coliforms were observed ranging from 11.0 to 63.0 cfu/ml with Sabon Tasha (TS) having the highest counts and Nasarawa (NS) with the least counts, while only two sites—Sabon Tasha (ST) and Kakuri (KK)—were recorded to have feacal contaminations. E. coli was identified suggesting that the water samples from the two were having recent feacal contamination.

Share and Cite:

Allamin, I. , Borkoma, M. , Joshua, R. and Machina, I. (2015) Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Well Water in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-5. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101597.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Nkuma, A.F. (2010) Physiochemical Analysis of Well Water from Wells Sited Close to Outside Sanitation System. M.Sc. Thesis.
[2] Pritchard, M., Mkandawire, T. and O’Neil, J.G. (2008) Assessment of Groundwater Quality within the Southern Districts of Malawi. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 33, 812-823.
[3] EPA (2012) Environmental Protection Agency Basic Information about Copper in Drinking Water. information/copper.cfm
[4] Kaduna State Government (KDSG) (2008) Kaduna State Achievements in Data on Estimated Annual Animal Populations and Fish Production Investment Opportunities in Kaduna State. 16-18.
[5] Isa, M.A., Allamin, I.A., Ismail, H.Y. and Shettima, A. (2013) Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analyses of Drinking Water from Wash Boreholes in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science, 7, 9-13.
[6] FAO (1997) Chemical Analysis Manual for Food and Water. 5th Edition, FOA, Rome, 20-26.
[7] Bello, H.S., Isa, M.A., Shettima, A. and Allamin, I.A. (2013) Physicochemical and Bacteriological Contamination of Drinking Water from Wash Bores in Jere, Borno State, Nigeria. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 3, 126-131.
[8] WHO (2006) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 3rd Edition, WHO Press, Geneva, 398.
[9] Edama, M.D., Omemu, A.M. and Fapetu, O.M. (2001) Microbiological and Physiochemical Analysis of Different Sources of Drinking Water in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, 15, 57-61.
[10] Miller (Jnr), G.T. (1997) Environmental Science, Working with the Earth. 6th Edition, Wadsworth Publishing Company, USA, 285-286.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.