Potential Food Safety Concerns in Fried Potato Products in Kenya

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101522   PDF   HTML   XML   1,371 Downloads   2,336 Views   Citations

Abstract

Fried potato products, mainly French fries and potato crisps, are consumed across all age groups and socio-economic status. These products are sources of energy and provide between-the-meal snacks for many consumers all over the world, Kenya included. There exist different food preparation set-ups that process these products under different conditions while using a variety of additives. A number of safety issues have, however, risen in the past that can be linked to glycoalkaloids in raw potatoes used during processing. Quality and content of oil used for frying are increasingly being blamed for obesity and heart diseases in the changing lifestyles currently witnessed in Kenya. Presence of acrylamide, excessive use of flavor enhancers, colorants and food additives in general have been suggested as possible contributors to increasing cases of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Increased consumption of these products can as well lead to higher exposure of the population to possible carcinogens such as acrylamide and packaging migrants. This review analyzes the potential hazards in French fries and potato crisps processing chains taking into account the Kenyan context. The possible impact of these hazards to the general consumer is also discussed and potential areas of research and evaluation are indicated.

Share and Cite:

Abong, G. and Kabira, J. (2015) Potential Food Safety Concerns in Fried Potato Products in Kenya. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-11. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101522.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Gildemacher, P.R., Kaguongo, W., Ortiz, O., Tesfaye, A., Woldegiorgis, G., Wagoire, W.W., Kakuhenzire, R., Kinyae, P.M., Nyongesa, M., Struik, P.C. and Leeuwis, C. (2009) Improving Potato Production in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia: A System Diagnosis. Potato Research, 52, 173-205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11540-009-9127-4
[2] Nema, P.K., Ramayya, N., Duncan, E. and Niranjan, K. (2008) Potato Glycoalkaloids: Formation and Strategies for Mitigation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 88, 1869-1881.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3302
[3] Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) (2009) Mainstreaming the Potato Crop from Orphan Crop Status. Proceedings of Round Table Africa (RTA) Potato Stakeholders’ Workshop, Nairobi, 8 May 2009.
[4] Peksa, A., Gołubowska, G., Aniołowski, K., Lisińska, G. and Rytel, E. (2006) Changes of Glycoalkaloids and Nitrate Contents in Potatoes during Chip Processing. Food Chemistry, 97, 151-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.03.035
[5] Abong’, G.O., Okoth, M.W., Imungi, J.K. and Kabira, J.N. (2010) Consumption Patterns, Diversity and Characteristics of Potato Crisps in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 32, 1942-1955.
[6] Chiou, A., Kalogeropoulos, N., Boskou, G. and Salta, F.N. (2012) Migration of Health Promoting Microconstituents from Frying Vegetable Oils to French Fries. Food Chemistry, 133, 1255-1263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.068
[7] American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) (2012) Cancer in Kenya.
http://www.asco.org/
[8] Lee, G.-I., Lee, H.-M. and Lee, C.-H. (2012) Food Safety Issues in Industrialization of Traditional Korean Foods. Food Control, 24, 1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.09.014
[9] Abong, G.O., Okoth, M.W., Karuri, E.G., Kabira, J.N. and Mathooko, F.M. (2009) Levels of Reducing Sugars in Eight Kenyan Potato Cultivars as Influenced by Stage of Maturity and Storage Conditions. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 2, 76-84.
[10] Elfnesh, F., Tekalign, T. and Solomon, W. (2011) Processing Quality of Improved Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cultivars as Influenced by Growing Environment and Blanching. African Journal of Food Science, 5, 324-332.
[11] Walingo, A., Lung’aho, C., N’gang’a, N., Kinyae, P.M. and Kabira, J.N. (2004) Potato Marketing, Storage, Processing and Utilization in Kenya. Proceedings of the 6th Triennial Congress of the African Potato Association, Agadir, 5-10 April 2004, 24-42.
[12] Machado, R.M.D., Toledo, M.C.F. and Garcia, L.C. (2007) Effect of Light and Temperature on the Formation of Glycoalkaloids in Potato Tubers. Food Control, 18, 503-508.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.12.008
[13] Lisinska, G., Peksa, A., Kita, A., Rytel, E. and Tajner-Czopek, A. (2009) The Quality of Potato for Processing and Consumption. In: Yee, N. and Bussel, W., Eds., Potato for Food, Volume 2, Instytutu Hodowli, Belgium, 99-104.
[14] Kirui, K.G., Misra, A.K., Olanya, O.M., El-Bedewy, R., Ewell, P.T. and Friedman, M. (2009) Glycoalkaloid Content of Some Superior Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Clones and Commercial Varieties. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 42, 453-463.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03235400601164505
[15] Walingo, A.M., Alexandre, C., Kabira, J.N. and Ewell, P.T. (1998) Potato Processing in Nairobi Kenya: Current Status and Potential for Further Development. Working Paper No. 1997-6, International Potato Centre, Nairobi.
[16] Government of Kenya (GoK) (2011) National Assembley Policy Brief on Situation Analysis of Cancer in Kenya. Government Printer, Nairobi.
[17] PACT Kenya (2011) Cancer Assessment in Africa and Asia Report.
www.cancer.iaea.org
[18] Gachango, G., Shibairo, S., Kabira, J.N., Chemining’wa, G. and Demo, P. (2008) Effects of Light Intensity on Quality of Potato Seed Tubers. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 3, 732-739.
[19] EAS 745 (East African Standards) (2010) Potato Crisps-Specifications.
[20] Al-Khusaibi, M., Gordon, M.H., Lovegrove, J.A. and Niranjan, K. (2012) Frying of Potato Chips in a Blend of Canola Oil and Palm Olein: Changes in Levels of Individual Fatty Acids and Tocols. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47, 1701-1709.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03024.x
[21] Adriana, S.-V., Ashley, G., Jack, N.L., Xu, Z.M. and Finley, J.W. (2012) Evolution of Phenolic Compounds from Color and Flavor Problems to Health Benefits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 6658-6677.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf300861c
[22] Fan, X. and Mastovska, K. (2006) Effectiveness of Ionizing Radiation in Reducing Furan and Acrylamide Levels in Foods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 8266-8270.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf061151+
[23] Pedreschi, P., Granby, B. and Risum, J. (2010) Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl. Food Bioprocess Technology, 3, 917-921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0349-x
[24] Sirot, V., Hommet, F., Tard, A. and Leblanc, J.C. (2012) Dietary Acrylamide Exposure of the French Population: Results of the Second French Total Diet Study. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50, 889-894.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.12.033
[25] Rytel, E. (2012) Changes in Glycoalkaloid and Nitrate Content in Potatoes during Dehydrated Dice Processing. Food Control, 25, 349-354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.10.053
[26] Arkhypova, V.N., Dzyadevych, S.V., Jaffrezic-Renaul, N., Martelet, C. and Soldatkin, A.P. (2008) Biosensors for Assay of Glycoalkaloids in Potato Tubers. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 44, 347-352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0003683808030162
[27] Jens, M., Harshadrai, R., Lothar, W. and Kroh, L.W. (2009) Composition of Phenolic Compounds and Glycoalkaloids Alpha-Solanine and Alpha-Chaconine during Commercial Potato Processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 6292-6297.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf901066k
[28] Ginzberg, I., Tokuhisa, J.G. and Veilleux, R.E. (2009) Potato Steroidal Glycoalkaloids: Biosynthesis and Genetic Manipulation. Potato Research, 52, 1-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11540-008-9103-4
[29] Knuthsen, P., Jensen, U., Schmidt, B. and Larsen, K. (2009) Glycoalkaloids in Potatoes: Content of Glycoalkaloids in Potatoes for Consumption. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22, 577-581.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.10.003
[30] Ruprich, J., Rehurkova, I., Boon, P.E., Svensson, K., Moussavian, S., Van der Voet, H., Bosgra, S., Van Klaveren, J.D. and Busk, L. (2009) Probabilistic Modelling of Exposure Doses and Implications for Health Risk Characterization: Glycoalkaloids from Potatoes. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 2899-2905.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.03.008
[31] Hellenas, K.E., Nyman, A., Slanina, P., Loof, L. and Gabrielsson, J. (1992) Determination of Potato Glycoalkaloids and Their Aglycone in Blood Serum by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies in Humans. Journal of Chromatography Biomedical Applications, 573, 69-78.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-4347(92)80476-7
[32] Woolfe, J.A. (1987) The Potato in the Human Diet. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753435
[33] Langkildea, S., Mandimika, T., Schrøder, M., Meyer, O., Slob, W., Peijnenburg, A. and Poulsen, M. (2009) A 28-Day Repeat Dose Toxicity Study of Steroidal Glycoalkaloids, α-Solanine and α-Chaconine in the Syrian Golden Hamster. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 47, 1099-108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.01.045
[34] Aziz, A., Randhawa, M.A., Butt, M.S., Asghar, A., Yasin, M. and Shibamoto, T. (2012) Glycoalkaloids (α-Chaconine and α-Solanine) Contents of Selected Pakistani Potato Cultivar and Their Dietary Intake Assessment. Journal of Food Science, 77, 58-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02582.x
[35] Haddadin, M.S.Y., Humeid, M.A., Quaroot, F.A., and Robinson, R.K. (2001) Effect of Exposure to Light on the Solanine Content of Two Varieties of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Popular in Jordan. Food Chemistry, 73, 205-208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00279-X
[36] Haase, N.U. (2008) Healthy Aspects of Potatoes as Part of the Human Diet. Potato Research, 51, 239-258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11540-008-9111-4
[37] Smith, D.B., Roddick, J.G. and Jones, J.L. (1996) Potato Glycoalkaloids: Some Unanswered Questions. Trends Food Science and Technology, 7, 126-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0924-2244(96)10013-3
[38] Roddick, J.G., Rijnenberg, A.L. and Weissenberg, M. (1990) Membrane-Disrupting Properties of the Steroidal Glycoalkaloids Solasonine and Solamargine. Phytochemistry, 29, 1513-1518.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(90)80111-S
[39] Krasowski, M.D., Mcgehee, D.S. and Moss, J. (1997) Natural Inhibitors of Cholinesterases: Implications for Adverse Drug Reactions. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 44, 525-534.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03011943
[40] Patel, B., Schutte, R., Sporns, P. and Fedorak, R.N. (2001) Glycoalkaloids Ingested from Potatoes Adversely Affect Intestinal Permeability and Aggravate Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology, 120, A186-A234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(01)80922-7
[41] Jbilo, O., Bartels, C.F., Chatonnet, A., Toutant, J.P. and Lockridge, O. (1994) Tissue Distribution of Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Messenger RNA. Toxicon-Oxford, 32, 1445-1457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0041-0101(94)90416-2
[42] Mensinga, T.T., Sips, A.J.A.M., Rompelberg, C.J.M., Van Twillert, K., Meulenbelt, J., Van den Top, H.J. and Van Egmond, H.P. (2005) Potato Glycoalkaloids and Adverse Effectsin Humans: An Ascending Dose Study. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 41, 66-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2004.09.004
[43] Ji, X., Rivers, L., Zielinski, Z., Xu, M., MacDougall, E., Stephen, J., Zhang, S., Wang, Y., Chapman, R.G., Keddy, P., Robertson, G.S., Kirby, C.W., Embleton, J., Worrall, K., Murphy, A., De Koeyer, D., Tai, H., Yu, L., Charter, E. and Zhang, J. (2012) Quantitative Analysis of Phenolic Components and Glycoalkaloids from 20 Potato Clones and in Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant, Cholesterol Uptake, and Neuroprotective Activities. Food Chemistry, 133, 1177-1187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.065
[44] Igoumenidis, P.E., Konstanta, M.A., Salta, F.N. and Karathanos, V.T. (2011) Phytosterols in Frying Oils: Evaluation of Their Absorption Inpre-Fried Potatoes and Determination of Their Destructionkinetics after Repeated Deep and Pan Frying. Procedia Food Science, 1, 608-615.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.profoo.2011.09.092
[45] Niazmanda, R., Farhoosh, R., Razavi, S.M.A., Mousavic, S.M. and Noghabi, M.S. (2011) Investigation of Quality and Stability of Canola Oil Refined Byadding Chemical Agents and Membrane Processing. Procedia Food Science, 1, 90-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.profoo.2011.09.015
[46] Buettner, R., Schölmerich, J., and Bollheimer, C. (2007) High-Fat Diets: Modeling the Metabolic Disorders of Human Obesity in Rodents. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15, 798-808.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.608
[47] Bansal, G., Zhou, W., Tan, T-W., Neo, F-L. and Lo, H.-L. (2009) Analysis of Trans Fatty Acids in Deep Frying Oils by Three Different Approaches. Food Chemistry, 116, 535-541.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.083
[48] Choe, E. and Min, D.B. (2007) Chemistry of Deep-Fat Frying Oils. Journal of Food Science, 72, R77-R86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00352.x
[49] Bou, R., Navas, J.A., Tres, A., Codony, R. and Guardiola, F. (2012) Quality Assessment of Frying Fats and Fried Snacks during Continuous Deep-Fat Frying at Different Large-Scale Producers. Food Control, 27, 254-267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.03.026
[50] Soupas, L., Huikko, L., Lampi, A.-M. and Piironen, V. (2007) Pan-Frying May Induce Phytosterol Oxidation. Food Chemistry, 101, 286-297.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.035
[51] Tabee, E., Azadmard-Damirchia, S., Jagerstada, M. and Dutta, P.C. (2008) Lipids and Phytosterol Oxidation in Commercial French Fries Commonly Consumed in Sweden. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21, 169-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2007.09.008
[52] Tabee, E., Margaretha J. and Dutta, P.C. (2008) Lipids and Phytosterol Oxidation Products in Commercial Potato Crisps Commonly Consumed in Sweden. European Food Research Technology, 227, 745-755.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-007-0783-9
[53] Caldas, E.D., Oliveira, J. and Andreia, N. (2011) Exposure to Toxic Chemicals in the Diet: Is the Brazillian Population at Risk. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 22, 1-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jes.2011.35
[54] Elizabeta, M. (2011) Consumer Protection and Food Safety. Revija za Kriminalistiko in Kriminologijo, 62, 3-11.
[55] Kücükatay, V., Genç, O., Kocamaz, E., Emmungil’, G., Erken, H.A. and Bagci, H. (2008) Spinal Reflexes in Normal and Sulfite Oxidase Deficient Rats: Effect of Sulfite Exposure. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 24, 147-153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233708092225
[56] Oner, M.E. and Walker, P.N. (2011) Effect of Processing and Packaging Conditions on Quality of Refrigerated Potato Strips. Journal of Food Science, 76, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01937.x
[57] Poorniamma, R., Gunasekaran, S. and Ariharasivakumar, G. (2011) Toxicity Evaluation of Fungal Food Colorant from Thymomyces Sp. in Albino Mice. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 70, 773-777.
[58] Adriana, S.-V., Ashley, G., Jack, N.L., Xu, Z.M. and Finley, J.W. (2012) Evolution of Phenolic Compounds from Color and Flavor Problems to Health Benefits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 6658-6677.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf300861c
[59] Meldrum, R.J., Little, C.L., Sagoo, S., Mithani, V., McLauchlin, J. and de Pinna, E. (2009) Assessment of the Microbiological Safety of Salad Vegetables and Saucesfrom Kebab Take-Away Restaurants in the United Kingdom. Food Microbiology, 26, 573-577.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2009.03.013
[60] Sagoo, S.K., Little, C.L., Greenwood, M., Mithani, V., Grant, K.A., McLauchlin, J., de Pinna, E. and Threlfall, E.J. (2009) Assessment of the Microbiological Safety of Dried Spices and Herbs Fromproduction and Retail Premises in the United Kingdom. Food Microbiology, 26, 39-43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2008.07.005
[61] Vigil, K.J., Jiang, Z.-D., Chen, J.J., Palumbo, K.L., Galbadage, T., Brown, E.L., Yiang, J., Koo, H., DuPont, M., Ericsson, C., Adachi, J.A. and DuPont, H. (2009) Coliform and Escherichia coli Contamination of Desserts Served in Public Restaurants from Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 80, 606-608.
[62] Muinde, O.K. and Kuria. E. (2005) Hygienic and Sanitary Practices of Vendors of Street Foods in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Food Agriculture and Nutritional Development, 5, 1-14.
[63] Halford, N.G., Curtis, T.Y., Muttucumaru, N., Postles, J., Elmore, S.J. and Mottram, D.S. (2012) The Acrylamide Problem: A Plant and Agronomic Science Issue. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 2841-2851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ers011
[64] Ghanayem, B.I., Witt, K.L., El-Hadri, L., Hoffler, U., Kissling, G.E., Shelby, M.D. and Bishop, J.B. (2005) Comparison of Germ Cell Mutagenicity in Male CYP2E1-Null and Wild Type Mice Treated with Acrylamide: Evidence Supporting a Glycidamide Mediated Effect. Biology of Reproduction, 72, 157-163.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.104.033308
[65] Khalil, F.A. and Aziem, B.A. (2005) Effect of Dietary Acrylamide Formed in Potato Crisps and Toasted Bread on Rats. Egyptian Journal of Natural Toxins, 2, 57-70.
[66] Mestdagh, F., Lachat, C., Katleen Baert, K., Moons, E., Kolsteren, P., Van Peteghem, C. and Bruno De Meulenaer, B. (2007) Importance of a Canteen Lunch on the Dietary Intake of Acrylamide. Molecular Nutrition Food Research, 51, 509-516.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200600253
[67] Ogolla, J.A., Abong’, G.O., Okoth, M.O., Imungi, J.K., Kabira J.N. and Paul Karanja, N. (2012) Levels of Acrylamide in Commercial Potato Crisps Sold in Nairobi, Kenya. Proceedings of the 7th Egerton University International Conference: Research and Expo, Njoro, 26-28 September 2012, 22.
[68] European Commission (EC) (2010) Recommendation on Investigation into the Levels of Acrylamide in Food. Brussels. http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/chemicalsafety/contaminants/recommendation_10012011_acrylamide_food_en.pdf
[69] Douny, C., Widart, J., Maghuin-Rogister, G., De Pauw, E. and Scippo, M.-L. (2012) Quantification of Acrylamide in various Belgian Potato Products Using Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection. Food and Public Health, 2, 137-141.
[70] Tateo, F., Bononi, M. and Gallone, F. (2010) Acrylamide Content in Potato Chips on the Italian Market Determined by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45, 629-634.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02176.x
[71] Mojska, H., Gielecinska, I. and Stos, K. (2012) Determination of Acrylamide Level in Commercial Baby Foods and an Assessment of Infant Dietary Exposure. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50, 2722-2728.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.05.023
[72] Dybing, E. and Sanner, T. (2003) Risk Assessment of Acrylamide in Foods. Toxicological Sciences, 75, 7-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfg165
[73] Boroushaki, M.T., Nikkhah, E., Kazemi, A., Oskooei, M. and Raters, M. (2010) Determination of Acrylamide Level in Popular Iranian Brands of Potato and Corn Products. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 2581-2584.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.06.011
[74] Tareke, E., Rydberg, P., Karlsson, P., Eriksson, S. and Tornqvist, M. (2002) Analysis of Acrylamide, a Carcinogen Formed in Heated Foodstuffs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 4998-5006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf020302f
[75] Olmez, H., Tuncay, F., Ozcan, N. and Demirel, S. (2008) A Survey of Acrylamide Levels in Foods from the Turkish Market. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21, 564-568.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.04.011
[76] Cummins, E., Butler, F., Gormley, R. and Brunton, N. (2008) A Methodology for Evaluating the Formation and Human Exposure to Acrylamide through Fried Potato Crisps. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie, 41, 854-867.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.05.022
[77] Poöaset, M.F., Jorge C., Oliveira, J., Pereira, R., Brandsch, R. and Hogg, T. (2011) Modelling Migration from Paper into a Food Simulant. Food Control, 22, 303-312.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.07.028
[78] Reinas, I., Oliveira, J., Pereira, J., Machado, F. and Poöas, M.F. (2012) Migration of Two Antioxidants from Packaging into a Solid Food and into Tenax. Food Control, 28, 333-337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.05.023
[79] Pocas, M. and Hogg, T. (2007) Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials in Foods: A Review. Trends in Food Science Technology, 18, 219-230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2006.12.008
[80] Foster, E., Mathers, J.C. and Adamson, A.J. (2010) Packaged Food Intake by British Children Aged 0 to 6 Years. Food Additives and Contaminants, 27, 380-388.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440040903367161
[81] Beldì, G., Pastorelli, S., Franchini F. and Simoneau, C. (2012) Time- and Temperature-Dependent Migration Studies of Irganox 1076 from Plastics into Foods and Food Simulants. Food Additives and Contaminants, 29, 836-845.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2011.649304
[82] Bomfim, M.V.J., Zamith, H.P.S. and Abrantes, S.M.P. (2011) Migration of 3-Caprolactam Residues in Packaging Intended for Contactwith Fatty Foods. Food Control, 22, 681-684.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.09.017

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.