Share This Article:

Augmentation of Dry Matter Production, Photosynthetic Enzymes, Yield Attributes and Quality Parameters of Sunflower through Seed Priming Effect of Gibberellic Acid—A Multifaceted Hormone

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101442    602 Downloads   965 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The aim of this experiment is to search best concentration of GA and appropriate duration (soaking hour) as well as to find out best interaction between best concentration and best soaking duration. Soaking the seeds with 10-5 M GA for 8 h is best for growth and development of sunflower cv. PAC 3776. Surface sterilized seeds sunflowers (Helianthus annus L.) were soaked in 0, 10-7, 10-5 and 10-3 M aqueous solution of gibberellic acid (GA) for 4, 8, 12 and 16 h and sown in pots filled with 4 kg homogenous mixture of soil and farmyard manure in the ratio of 4:1. The plants were sampled at 50 and 70 days after sowing (DAS), for analysis of shoot and root dry weight, leaf area index (LAI), carbonic anhydrase activity (CA) and nitrate reductase (NR) activity, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content at 50 and 70 DAS and seeds per head, seed yield, and harvest index, acid value, iodine value and saponification value at harvest (90 DAS). All parameters were found to be significantly enhanced by the GA seed priming effect, with maximum stimulation being noted following an 8 h soaking treatment with 10-5 M GA. Moreover, the most of the mentioned parameters were enhanced by 132.98%, 170.59%, 33.82%, 25.86% and 86.14% over the control at the 50 DAS except the CA, N, and P found to be non-significant at this stage. N content was found to be non-significant also at 70 DAS. Similarly, yield parameters were enhanced also by 123.49%, 44.76%, 41.38%, 111.76% and 1.64% respectively at harvest over control except iodine value. The objective of this experiment is to enhance the quality of sunflower constituents through application of best concentration and soaking time of GA.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Jafri, N. and Mazid, M. (2015) Augmentation of Dry Matter Production, Photosynthetic Enzymes, Yield Attributes and Quality Parameters of Sunflower through Seed Priming Effect of Gibberellic Acid—A Multifaceted Hormone. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-18. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101442.

References

[1] K1aiyarasan, C. and Vaiyapuri, V. (2007) Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices on Growth and Yield Attributes and Quality Characters of Sunflower (Helianthus L.). International Journal of Tropical Agricultural, 35, 15-18.
[2] Anonymous (1971) Urea: Foliar Spray on Crops in India. Japan Urea Centre, New Delhi.
[3] Russell, E.J. (1950) Soil Conditions and Plant Growth. 8th Edition, Longmans Green and Co., New York.
[4] Eriksen, J. and Askegaard, M. (2000) Sulphate Leaching in an Organic Crop Rotation on Sandy Soil in Denmark. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 78, 107-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00117-6
[5] Suphiya, K., Vaishali and Vinay, S. (2010) Genetic Differentiation and Diversity Analysis of Medicinal Tree Syzygiumcumini (Myrtaceae) from Ecologically Different Regions of India. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 16, 1-10.
[6] Mazid, M. (2014) Response of Cicerarietinum L. to Plant Growth Regulators and Mineral Nutrients. Ph.D. Thesis, AMU, India.
[7] Gana, A.S. (2010) The Role of Synthetic Growth Hormones in Crop Multiplication and Improvement. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 10330-10334.
[8] Buchanan, B.B., Gruissen, W. and Jones, R.L. (2000) Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville.
[9] Tiwari, D.K., Pandey, P, Giri, S.P. and Dwivedi, J.L. (2011) Effect of GA3 and Other Plant Growth Regulators on Hybrid Rice Seed Production. Asian Journal of Plant Science, 10, 133-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2011.133.139
[10] Mazid, M. (2014) Seed Priming Application of Gibberellic Acid on Growth, Biochemical, Yield and Protein Status of Chickpea (Cicerarietinum L. cv. DCP 92-3). International Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 5, 17-22.
[11] Mazid, M. (2014) Application of Spray and Seed Priming GA3 with P and S Ameliorate Seed Protein Content by Augmenting Photosynthetic Attributes, Enzymes Activities and Leghemoglobin Content of Chickpea. International Journal of Basic and Applied Biology, 1, 14-19.
[12] Khan, T.A., Mazid, M. and Quddusi, S. (2014) Role of Organic and Inorganic Chemicals in Plant-Stress Mitigation. In: Gaur, P.K. and Sharma, P., Eds., Approaches to Plant Stress and Their Management, Springer, India, 39-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-1620-9_3
[13] Mazid, M. and Mohammad, F. (2012) Environmental Constraints Responsible for Reduction in Productivity of Chickpea: Revisit an Old Problem. International Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management, 3, 32-36.
[14] Yuan, L. and Xu, D.Q. (2001) Stimulation Effect of Gibberellic Acid Short-Term Treatment on Leaf Photosynthesis Related to the Increase in Rubisco Content in Broad Bean and Soybean. Photosynthesis Research, 68, 39-47.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011894912421
[15] Khan, T.A., Mazid, M. and Mohammad, F. (2011) Climate Change, Sustainable Agriculture and Future Needs: A Perspective of Parallel Rethinking. Journal of Industrial Research and Technology, 1, 1-5.
[16] Marschner, H. (2002) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd Edition, Academic Press, London.
[17] Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (2010) Plant Physiology. 5th Edition, Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
[18] Tiwari, D.K., Pandey, P., Giri, S.P. and Dwivedi, J.L. (2011) Effect of GA3 and Other Plant Growth Regulators on Hybrid Rice Seed Production. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 10, 133-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2011.133.139
[19] Wood, A. and Paleg, L.G. (1974) Alteration of Liposomal Membrane Fluidity by Gibberellic Acid. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 1, 31-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/PP9740031
[20] Mazid, M. and Naqvi, N. (2014) Key Approaches of Plant Growth Regulator Application in Searching of Best Time for Enhancing Nitrogen Fixation Capacity of Chickpea Cultivar DCP 92-3. Unique Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicines, 2, 8-18.
[21] Huttly, A.K. and Phillips, A.L. (1995) Gibberellin-Regulated Plant Genes. Physiologia Plantarum, 95, 310-317.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1995.tb00843.x
[22] Estruch, J.J., Pereto, J.G., Vercher, Y. and Beltran, J.P. (1989) Sucrose Loading in Isolated Veins of Pisum sativum: Regulation by Abscisic Acid, Gibberellic Acid and Cell Turgor. Plant Physiology, 91, 259-265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.91.1.259
[23] Mazid, M. and Naqvi, N. (2014) Differential Yield and Quality Response of Four Chickpea Cultivars Following the Foliar Spray of Five Selected Plant Growth Regulators. Agricultural Science Digest, 34, 268-272.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0976-0547.2014.01017.9
[24] Ouzounidou, G. and Ilias, I. (2005) Hormone-Induced Protection of Sunflower Photosynthetic Apparatus against Copper Toxicity. Biologia Plantarum, 49, 223-228.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10535-005-3228-y
[25] Watson, D.J. (1958) The Dependence of Net Assimilation Rate on Leaf Area Index. Annals of Botany, 22, 37-54.
[26] Dwivedi, R.S. and Randhawa, N.S. (1974) Evaluation of a Rapid Test for the Hidden Hunger of Zinc in Plants. Plant and Soil, 40, 445-451.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00011531
[27] Jaworski, E.G. (1971) Nitrate Reductase Assay in Intact Plant Tissues. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 43, 1274-1279.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-291X(71)80010-4
[28] Lindner, R.C. (1944) Rapid Analytical Methods for Some of the More Common Inorganic Constituents of Plant Tissues. Plant Physiology, 19, 76-89.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.19.1.76
[29] Fiske, C.H. and Subbarow, Y. (1925) The Colorimetric Determination of Phosphorus. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 66, 375-400.
[30] Anonymous (1970) Pharmacopoeia of India. 2nd Edition, Manager of Publications, Ministry of Health, Government of India, New Delhi, 947-948.
[31] Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984) Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
[32] Badger, M.R. and Price, G.D. (1994) The Role of Carbonic Anhydrase in Photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 45, 369-392.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.45.060194.002101
[33] Mazid, M., Ali, B., Hayat, S. and Ahmad, A. (2010) The Effect of 4-Chloro-3-indoleacetic Acid on Some Growth Parameters in Mung Bean under Cadmium Stress. Turkish Journal of Biology, 34, 9-13.
[34] Arteca, R.N. and Dong, C.N. (1981) Stimulation of Photosynthesis by Application of Phyto-Hormones to the Root Systems of Tomato Plants. Photosynthesis Research, 2, 243-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00056261
[35] Campbell, W.H. (1999) Nitrate Reductase Structure, Function and Regulation: Bridging the Gap between Biochemistry and Physiology. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 50, 277-303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.50.1.277
[36] Okabe, K., Angela, L., Mikio, T. and Shigetoh, M. (1980) Effect of Carbonic Anhydrase on Ribulose 1, 5-Biphosphate Carboxylase and Oxygenase. FEBS Letters, 114, 142-144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(80)80879-9
[37] Mazid, M. and Roychowdhury, R. (2014) Leaf N-P-K Content as Indicators of Yield, Total Protein and Sugar Content of Seeds of Bengal Gram (Cicer arietinum L.). Unique Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, 2, 21-31.
[38] Clouse, S.D. and Sasse, J.M. (1998) Brassinosteroids: Essential Regulators of Plant Growth and Development. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 49, 427-451.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.49.1.427
[39] Saran, B., Sinha, B.K., Sharma, A.K. and Mehta, A.S. (1992) Effect of Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment in GA3 on Growth, Yield and Chlorophyll in Mustard. New Agriculture, 3, 59-60.
[40] Thakare, U., Patil, N. and Malpathak, N. (2011) Performance of Chickpea under the Influence of Gibberellic Acid and Oxygenated Peptone during Germination. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 2, 40-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/abb.2011.21007
[41] Mazid, M., Roy Chowdhury, R. and Khan, F. (2014) Evaluation of Chickpea Cultivation Approaches in Terms of Environmental Resilience and Future Protein Security. Current Agriculture Research Journal, 2, 164-174.
[42] Mazid, M., Khan, T.A., Mohammad, F. and Nooris, N. (2013) Physico-Biochemical Effects of Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment with Gibberellic Acid on Helianthus annus L. National Conference of Plant Physiology, Current Trends in Plant Biology Research, Junagarh, 13-16 December 2013, 895-896.
[43] Iqbal, H.F., Tahir, A., Khalid, M.N., Iul-Haq and Ahmad, A.N. (2001) Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Growth towards the Foliar Application of Gibberellic Acid at Different Growth Stages. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 4, 433-434.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2001.433.434
[44] Yadav, R.M. and Bharud, R.W. (2006) Response of Kabuli Chickpea to the Foliar Application of Growth Substances. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 40, 134-137.
[45] Mazid, M., Khan, T.A. and Mohammad, F. (2011) Potential Role of NO and H2O2 as Signalling Molecules in Tolerance to Abiotic Stress in Plants. Journal of Industrial Research and Technology, 1, 56-68.
[46] Hassanpourdagham, M.B., El-Amery, E.M. and Mazid, M. (2015) Note on the Enzyme Activities, Productivity and Quality Parameters of Chickpea Cultivars under Influence of Diverse Synthetic Plant Growth Promoters. Post Harvest Science and Technology, 2, 23-38.
[47] Mazid, M. and Khan, T.A. (2014) Molecules, Enzymes and Plant Productivity. APH Publishing Corporation Pvt. Ltd., Daryaganj.
[48] Khan, T.A., Mazid, M., Ansari, S.A., Azam, A. and Naeem, A. (2012) Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Promote the Aggregation of Conconavalin A. International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics, 3, 23-27.
[49] Mazid, M. and Khan, F. (2015) Analysis of Response of Chick-Pea Cultivars to Various Insecticides—A Pot Evaluation. Conceptual Framework and Innovations in Agro-Ecology and Food Sciences, 1, 68-72.
[50] Naqvi, N., Khan, T.A., Mazid, M., Khan, F., Quddusi, S. and Roychowdhury, R. (2014) Phytoremediatory Potential of Guava and Ashok Tree at Three Different Sites of Bareilly District—A Case Study. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 9, 101-109.
[51] Majeau, N. and Coleman, J.R. (1994) Correlation of Carbonic Anhydrase and Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate Carboxylase/ Oxygenase Expression in Pea. Plant Physiology, 104, 1393-1399.
[52] Price, A.H., Taylor, A., Ripley, S.J., Griffiths, A., Trewavas, A.J. and Knight, M.R. (1994) Oxidative Signals in Tobacco Increase Cytosolic Calcium. Plant Cell, 6, 1301-1310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.6.9.1301
[53] Jain, V., Khetarpal, S., Das, R. and Abrol, Y.P. (2011) Nitrate Assimilation in Contrasting Wheat Genotypes. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 17, 137-144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-011-0061-y
[54] Mazid, M., Khan, T.A. and Mohammad, F. (2012) Role of Nitrate Reductase in Nitrogen Fixation under Photosynthetic Regulation. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 1, 386-414.
[55] Hassanpouraghdam, M.B., Hajisamadi, A.B. and Khalighi, A. (2011) Gibberellic Acid Foliar Application Influences Growth, Volatile Oil and Some Physiological Characteristics of Lavender (Lavandula officinalis Chaix). Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 16, 6322-6327.
[56] Stemler, A.J. (1997) The Case for Chloroplast Thylakoid Carbonic Anhydrase. Physiologia Plantarum, 99, 348-353.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1997.tb05423.x
[57] Hopkins, W.G. (2004) Introduction to Plant Physiology. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken.
[58] Sugiharto, B., Burnell, J.N. and Sugiyama, T. (1992) Cytokinin Is Required to Induce the Nitrogen Dependent Accumulation of mRNAs for Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxylase and Carbonic Anhydrase in Detached Maize Leaves. Plant Physiology, 100, 153-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.100.1.153
[59] Chanda, S.V., Sood, C.R., Reddy, V.S. and Singh, Y.D. (1998) Influence of Plant Growth Regulators on Some Enzymes of Nitrogen Assimilation in Mustard Seedling. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 21, 1765-1777.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904169809365521
[60] Aloni, B., Daie, J. and Wyse, R.E. (1986) Enhancement of (14C)-Sucrose Export from Source Leaves of Vicia faba by Gibberellic Acid. Plant Physiology, 82, 962-966.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.82.4.962
[61] Indurker, S., Misra, H.S. and Eapen, S. (2010) Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with an Insecticidal Protein Gene: Optimisation of Different Factors. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 16, 273-284.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-010-0030-x
[62] Praveen, K.S., Sharma, S.K. and Choi, I.Y. (2010) Individual and Combined Effects of Water-Logging and Alkalinity on Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Imposed at Three Critical Stages. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 16, 317-320.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-010-0027-5

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.