Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Adult Individuals Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Health Facilities of Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia


Background: In resource limited settings, many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals lack access to sufficient quantities of nutritious foods, which poses additional challenges to the success of anti-retroviral therapy. Morbidity and mortality related to human immune deficiency virus infection in the developing world remain unacceptably high, despite major advances in human immune deficiency virus therapy and increased international funding for care. Objective: To determine magnitude of malnutrition and identify factors associated with it among adult people on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in health facility of Hosanna town. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 20 to April30, 2014 on 340 adult people on anti-retroviral therapy at antiretroviral therapy clinics of Hosanna town. Sample clients were selected by simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using structured pretested questionnaire, record review using check list and anthropometric measurements. Bi-variate analysis and multivariable logistic regression models were done using SPSS version 16 to identify factors associated with malnutrition. Results: Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2) in this study was 31.2%. Household food insecurity (AOR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.31 - 4.81), inadequate diversified diet (AOR = 0.44,  95% CI: 0.23 - 0.84), low meal frequency (AOR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.76), clinical staging four (AOR = 5.23, 95% CI: 1.42 - 19.35), clinical staging three (AOR = 3.91, 95% CI: 1.57, 9.73), presence of opportunistic infections (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.49 - 4.59) and nutritional support (AOR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23 - 0.89) were independent predictors of malnutrition. Conclusion: Malnutrition (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) was high in adult people on anti-retroviral therapy at anti-retroviral therapy clinics of Hossana town. Only Anti-Retroviral Therapy is not enough to improve the health status of people on HAART. Further, interventional initiatives should focus in improving household food security, diversity of diet, meal frequency, clinical staging and prevention and control of opportunistic infections in adult HIV infected individuals receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy.

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Asnakew, M. , Hailu, C. and Jarso, H. (2015) Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Adult Individuals Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Health Facilities of Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-12. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101289.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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