An Investigation into the Role of Capping on Second Harmonic Generation from Nonlinear Organic Polymer and Guest-Host Thin Films by In-Situ Poling

DOI: 10.4236/opj.2016.65013   PDF   HTML   XML   1,714 Downloads   2,086 Views   Citations


In attempts to fabricate thermally stable second-order nonlinear polymer thin films, we have investigated the second harmonic generation (SHG) from both nonlinear polymer and guest-host thin films. We have also investigated the role of capping on the SHG, temporal stability and relaxation of dipole alignment. Corona poling techniques were employed to orient the dopants into the noncentrosymmetric structure required to obtain the SHG. The effect of capping with a polymeric encapsulant below the glass transition temperature of the polymers on the unpoled and corona poled thin films was studied. Capping of the nonlinear polymer and guest host thin films have resulted in high SHG with good temporal stability. SHG signal falls drastically during the first 8 days after poling while no further significant decay in SHG signal was observed after about 33 days. Our investigations have identified the characteristics required for a good encapsulant on a non-con-ductive surface.

Share and Cite:

Ushasree, P. and Szablewski, M. (2016) An Investigation into the Role of Capping on Second Harmonic Generation from Nonlinear Organic Polymer and Guest-Host Thin Films by In-Situ Poling. Optics and Photonics Journal, 6, 101-111. doi: 10.4236/opj.2016.65013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Prasad, P.N. and Williams, D.J. (1991) Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers. Wiley, New York.
[2] Marder, S.R., Kippelen, B., Jen, A.K.Y. and Peyghambarian, N. (1997) Design and Synthesis of Chromophores and Polymers for Electro-Optic and Photorefractive Applications. Nature, 388, 845.
[3] Shi, Y., Zhang, C., Bechtel, J.H., Dalton, L.R., Robinson, B.H. and Steier, W.H. (2000) Low (Sub-1 Volt) Halfwave Voltage Electrooptic Polymer Modulators Achieved by Controlling Chromophore Shape. Science, 288, 119.
[4] Lee, M., Katz, H.E., Erben, C., Gill, D.M., Gopalan, P., Heber, J.D. and McGee, D.J. (2002) Broadband Modulation of Light by Using an Electro-Optic Polymer. Science, 298, 1401.
[5] Garner, S.M., Cites, J.S., He, M.Q. and Wang, J.G. (2004) Polysulfone as an Electro-Optic Polymer Host Material Applied Physics Letters, 84, 1049.
[6] Kajzar, F., Lee, K.S. and Jen, A.K.Y. (2003) Polymeric Materials and Their Orientation Techniques for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics. Advances in Polymer Science, 161, 1.
[7] Enami, Y., Meredith, G., Peyghambarian, N., Kawazu, M. and Jen, A.K.Y. (2003) Hybrid Electro-Optic Polymer and Selectively Buried Sol-Gel Waveguides. Applied Physics Letters, 82, 490.
[8] Wang, N.P., Leslie, T.M., Wang, S. and Kowel, S.T. (1995) Syntheses of Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Polyure-thanes for Electrooptic Etalons. Chemistry of Materials, 7, 185-191.
[9] Tumolillo, T.A. and Ashley, P.R. (1992) A Novel Pulse-Poling Technique for EO Polymer Waveguide Devices Using Device Electrode Poling. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 4, 142-145.
[10] Ashley, P.R. and Tumolillo, T.A. (1991) Overview of EO Polymers for Guided-Wave Devices. Proceedings of the SPIE, Integrated Optical Circuits, 1583, 316.
[11] Lytel, R., Lipscomb, G.F., Kenney, J.T. and Ticknor, A.J. (1991) Applications of Electro-Optic Polymers to Optical Interconnects. Proceedings of the SPIE, Optical Enhancements to Computing Technology, 1563, 122.
[12] Jen, A.K.Y., Wong, K.Y., Pushkara Rao, V., Drost, K. and Cai, Y.M. (1994) Thermally Stable Poled Polymers: Highly Efficient Heteroaromatic Chromophores in High Temperature Polymides. Journal of Electronic Materials, 23, 653.
[13] Cui, Y., Qian, G., Chen, L., Wang, Z., Gao, J. and Wang, M. (2006) Enhanced Thermal Stability of Dipole Alignment in Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Films Containing Benzothiazole Chromophore. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 110, 4105-4110.
[14] Samoc, A., Holland, A., Tsuchimori, M., Watanabe, O., Samoc, M., Luther-Davies, B. and Kolev, V.Z. (2005) In Situ SHG Monitoring of Dipolar Orientation and Relaxation in Disperse Red Type/Derivative Urethane-Urea Copolymer. Proceedings of the SPIE, Nonlinear Optics Applications, 5949, 191.
[15] Hill, R.A., Knoesen, A. and Mortazavi, M.A. (1994) Corona Poling of Nonlinear Polymer Thin Films for Electro-Optic Modulators. Applied Physics Letters, 65, 1733.
[16] Hampsch, H.L., Torkelson, J.M., Bethke, S.J. and Grubb, S.G. (1990) Second Harmonic Generation in Corona Poled, Doped Polymer Films as a Function of Corona Processing. Journal of Applied Physics, 67, 1037.
[17] Mortazavi, M.A., Knoesen, A., Kowel, S.T., Higgins, B.G. and Dienes, A. (1989) Second-Harmonic Generation and Absorption Studies of Polymer-Dye Films Oriented by Corona-Onset Poling at Elevated Temperatures. Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 6, 733-741.
[18] Szablewski, M. (1994) Novel Reactions of TCNQ: Formation of Zwitterions for Nonlinear Optics by Reaction with Enamines. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 59, 954-956.
[19] Szablewski, M. and Cross, G.H. (2005) In-Situ Synthesis and Alignment by Poling of a Zwitterionic NLO Chromophore in a Polymeric Guest-Host System. Proceedings of the SPIE, Nonlinear Optics Applications, 5949, 595902-1.
[20] Herminghaus, S., Smith, B.A. and Swalen, J.D. (1991) Electro-Optic Coefficients in Electric-Field-Poled Polymer Waveguides. Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 8, 2311-2317.
[21] Morichere, D., Chollet, P.A., Fleming, W., Jurich, M., Smith, B.A. and Swalen, J.D. (1993) Electro-Optic Effects in Two Tolane Side-Chain Nonlinear-Optical Polymers: Comparison between Measured Coefficients and Second-Harmonic Generation. Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 10, 1894-1900.
[22] Rau, I. and Kajzar, F. (2008) Second Harmonic Generation Technique and Its Applications. Nonlinear Optics and Quantum Optics, 38, 99.
[23] Shi, W., Ding, Y.J., Fang, C., Pan, Q. and Gu, Q. (2003) Investigation of Charge Effects on Poling and Stability for Corona-Poled Polymer Films. Applied Physics A, Materials Science and Processing, 77, 567-570.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.