GIS-Based Spatial Mapping of Flash Flood Hazard in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia

DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2011.33019   PDF   HTML     11,389 Downloads   24,474 Views   Citations


Flash floods occur periodically in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia, due to several factors including its rugged to-pography and geological structures. Hence, precise assessment of floods becomes a more vital demand in development planning. A GIS-based methodology has been developed for quantifying and spatially mapping the flood characteristics. The core of this new approach is integrating several topographic, metrological, geological, and land use datasets in a GIS environment that utilizes the Curve Number (CN) method of flood modelling for ungauged arid catchments. Additionally, the computations of flood quantities, such as depth and volume of runoff, are performed in the attribute tables of GIS layers, in order to assemble all results in the same environment. The accomplished results show that the runoff depth in Makkah, using a 50-years re-turn period, range from 128.1 mm to 193.9 mm while the peak discharge vary from 1063 m3/s to 4489 m3/s. The total flood volume is expected to reach 172.97 million m3 over Makkah metropolitan area. The advan-tages of the developed methodology include precision, cost-effective, digital outputs, and its ability to be re-run in other conditions.

Share and Cite:

G. Dawod, M. Mirza and K. Al-Ghamdi, "GIS-Based Spatial Mapping of Flash Flood Hazard in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia," Journal of Geographic Information System, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2011, pp. 225-231. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2011.33019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] USGS (U.S. Geological Survey), “Watershed Models for Decision Support for Inflows to Potholes Reservoir,” Washington Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5081, 2009.
[2] M. Azab, “Assessment and Management of Natural Hazards and Disasters along Qena-Safaga Road, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt,” Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, Vol. 12, 2009, pp. 55-70.
[3] M. El-Bastawesy, K. White and A. Nasr, “Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS for Modelling Flash Floods in Wadi Hudain Catchment, Egypt,” Hydrological Process, Vol. 23, No. 9, 2009, pp. 1359-1368. doi:10.1002/hyp.7259
[4] S. Yahaya, N. Ahmad and R. Abdalla, “Multicriteria Analysis for Flood Vulnerable Areas In Hadejia- Jama’are River Basin, Nigeria,” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2010, pp. 71-83.
[5] N. Kim, J.W. Lee, J., Lee and J. E. Lee, “SWAT Application to Estimate Design Runoff Curve Number for South Korean Conditions,” Hydrological Process, Vol. 24, No. 15, 2010, pp. 2156-2170.
[6] W. Liang, C. Yongli, C. Hongquan, D. Daler, Z. Jingmin, and Y. Juan, “Flood Disaster in Taihu Basin, China: Causal Chain and Policy Option Analyses,” Environmental Earth Science, Vol. 63, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1119- 1124. doi:10.1007/s12665-010-0786-x
[7] M. Al Saud, “Assessment of Flood Hazard of Jeddah Area 2009, Saudi Arabia,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2, No. 9, 2010, pp. 839-847. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2010.29099
[8] E. Fred and B. Mostafa, “Flood Risk Modeling for Holy Sites in Makkah,” Proceedings of the Symposium on National GIS application in Saudi Arabia, Al-Kober City, 2008, pp. 1-12.
[9] E. Mihalik, “Watershed Characterization and Runoff Modelling of the Chapel Branch Creek, Orangeburg county, South Carolina,” MS.C Thesis, College of Charleston, Charleston, 2008.
[10] IDoT (Iowa State Department of Transportation), “Iowa Storm Water Management Manual,” 2009.
[11] US ACE (US Army Corps of Engineers), “Physical Stream Assessment,” 2004.
[12] NH DoT (New Hampshire Department of Transportation), “Drainage Design Manual for Highways,” 1998.
[13] US DoT (US Department of Transportation), “Highway Hydrology Manual,” Publication No. FHWA-02-001, 2002.
[14] A. Youssef, B. Pradhan and A. Hassan. “Flash Flood Risk Estimation along the St. Katherine Road, Southern Sinai, Egypt Using GIS Based Morphometry and Satellite Imagery,” Environmental Earth Science, Vol. , No. , April 27, 2010, pp. 1-13.
[15] A. Saleh and S. Al-Hatrushi. “Torrential Flood Hazards Assessment, Management, and Mitigation, in Wadi Aday, Muscat area, Sultanate of Oman, a GIS & RS Approach,” Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, 12, No. 1, 2010, pp. 71-86.
[16] H. Chang, J. Franczyk and C. Kim, “What is Responsible for Increasing Flood Risks? The Case of Gangwon Province, Korea,” Natural Hazards, Vol. 48, No. 3, 2009, pp. 339-354. doi:10.1007/s11069-008-9266-y
[17] A. Jasrotia and R. Singh, “Modeling Runoff and Soil Erosion in a Catchment Area, Using the GIS, in the Himalayan Region, India,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2006, pp. 29-37. doi:10.1007/s00254-006-0301-6
[18] J. Chen, A. Hill and L. Urbano, “A GIS-Based Model for Urban Flood Inundation,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 373, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 184-192. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.04.021
[19] Z. Dongquan, C. Jining, W. Haozheng, T. Qingyuan, C. Shangbing and S. Zheng, “GIS-Based Urban Rainfall- Runoff Modeling Using an Automatic Catchment- Discretization Approach: A Case Study in Macau,” Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2009, pp. 465- 472. doi:10.1007/s12665-009-0045-1
[20] P. Guptaa and S. Panigrahya, “Geo-Spatial Modeling of Runoff of Large Land Mass: Analysis, Approach and Results for Major River Basins of India,” Proceedings of the International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 37, Part B2, Beijing, 2008.
[21] D. Gogoase, I. Arma? and C. Ionescu, “Inundation Maps for Extreme Flood Events at the Mouth of the Danube River,” International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2011, pp. 68-74.
[22] S. Karmakar, S. Simonovic, A. Peck and J. Black, “An Information System for Risk-Vulnerability Assessment to Flood,” Journal of Geographic Information System, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2010, pp. 129-146.
[23] M. Mirza and B. Ahmed, “Winter Weather and Climate Conditions in Makkah (in Arabic),” Geographic Messages, Kuwait Geographic Association, Kuwait, Vol. 253, 2001.
[24] H. Raghunath, “Hydrology: Principles, Analysis, and Design,” New Age International Ltd., New Delhi, 2006.
[25] KSA MoPWH (Saudi Ministry of Public Works and Housing), “Storm Water Drainage System for Muzdalifah and Arafat Areas,” Unpublished Technical Report, 2001.
[26] M. Mirza, G. Dawod and K. Al-Ghamdi, “Assessment of Global and National Digital Elevation Models For Geodetic and Geomorphologic Applications in Makkah Metropolitan Area, Saudi Arabia,” The XXV IUGG General Assembly, Melbourne, 28 June - 7 July, 2011.
[27] Z. Sen, “Wadi Hydrology,” CRC Press, New York, 2008.
[28] US NRCS (US National Resources Conservation Services), “Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds,” Technical Manual TR55, 1986.
[29] G. Dawod, M. Mirza and K. Al-Ghamdi, “Assessment of Several Flood Estimation Methodologies in Makkah Metropolitan Area, Saudi Arabia,” Under Review, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 2011.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.