Morphological and Functional Alterations in Human Red Blood Cells Treated with Titanium Citrate


The morphological and functional effects of titanium (Ti) citrate on human erythrocytes were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), sulphate uptake via band 3 protein and by determining the reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG, respectively) concentrations. The rate constant for sulphate uptake was significantly lower after Ti citrate treatment. Ti citrate (0.001 and 0.0025 mM) significantly decreased erythrocyte GSH and increased GSSG concentrations. At 0.005 mM Ti citrate, the intracellular GSH could not be tested due to significant cellular damage. SEM of erythrocytes treated with 0.001 mM and 0.0025 mM Ti citrate showed structural membrane defects but almost normal cellular diameters. At even higher Ti citrate concentrations (0.005 mM), erythrocytes showed obvious morphological alteration and shape changes compromising the cells physiological functions. In conclusion, although the Ti concentrations used in our experiments are physiologically high, the cumulative effect of prolonged exposure to much lower doses of Ti, as might occur during total hip replacement, should be considered for further experimental testing.

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G. Tiziana, D. Grazia, R. Pietro, R. Caterina, R. Orazio, S. Adriana and R. Leonardo, "Morphological and Functional Alterations in Human Red Blood Cells Treated with Titanium Citrate," Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2011, pp. 116-121. doi: 10.4236/pp.2011.23015.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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