Gender Discrimination (GD): A Conceptual Trauma-Based Framework for GD and the Development of Gender Discrimination Inventory


A comprehensive plausible conceptual model of Gender Discrimination (GD) and accurate measures of its components are lacking. Current study developed a conceptual model of GD derived from the development-based trauma framework (DBT) and constructed measures for GD and its coping dynamics and tested them in two studies on Egyptian female college students. The first study conducted on a sample of 150, and the second study conducted on 311 participants. Exploratory factor analysis in the first sample, and confirmatory factor analysis in the second sample confirmed three components of GD (GD by parents attitudes, GD by parents behavior, and GD by society), and three components of GD coping dynamics (gender identity conflict (GIC), internalized GD, and GD resistance). GD measures are found to have generally good reliability and stability, good construct, and predictive validity. Using path analysis in the second study, GD, controlling for other life traumas, predicted a significant decrease in self-esteem and self-efficacy and increase in existential anxiety, which mediated its effects on PTSD and complex PTSD. GIC and internalized GD further moderated GD effects. GD inventory that includes 6 measures with 33 items can be a parsimonious tool for future research on GD.

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Kira, I. , Hanaa, S. and Bujold-Bugeaud, M. (2015) Gender Discrimination (GD): A Conceptual Trauma-Based Framework for GD and the Development of Gender Discrimination Inventory. Psychology, 6, 2041-2070. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.616201.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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