Ameliorative Effects of Spirulina platensis on Deltamethrin-Induced Biochemical Alterations and Oxidative Stress in the African Catfish; Clarias gariepinus


The present study was carried out to determine LC50 of deltamethrin (DM) in the African catfish; Clarias gariepinus, investigate its effects on the biochemical parameters and the antioxidant status of various tissues, and assess the protective role of Spirulina platensis (SP) against DM induced toxicity in C. gariepinus. The fish were distributed into seven groups of 10 fish/each for 30 days as follows: Group 1, control; Group 2, orally administered saline; Group 3, oral SP (150 mg/kg b.w.); Group 4, exposed to 5.19 μg/l DM; Group 5, exposed to 5.19 μg/l DM and orally administered SP (150 mg/kg b.w.); Group 6, exposed to 12.97 μg/l DM; and Group 7, exposed to 12.97 μg/l DM and orally administered SP (150 mg/kg b.w.). Results revealed marked elevation in serum AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin was recorded. At the same time, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased in liver, kidney and gills. While, tissue level ofGSHand, SOD,CATandGSH-Px activities were reduced. Treatment with SP improved the biochemical parameters and attenuated the DM induced oxidative damage. Therefore, this study confirmed the protective role of SP as an antioxidant against the toxicity of DM in catfish.

Share and Cite:

Hamed, H. (2016) Ameliorative Effects of Spirulina platensis on Deltamethrin-Induced Biochemical Alterations and Oxidative Stress in the African Catfish; Clarias gariepinus. Open Journal of Marine Science, 6, 1-10. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2016.61001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Koprücü, K. and Ayd1n, R. (2004) The Toxic Effects of Pyrethroid Deltamethrin on the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Embryos and Larvae. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 80, 47-53.
[2] Ural, M.S. and Saglam, N. (2005) A Study on the Acute Toxicity of Pyrethroid Deltamethrin on the Fry Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 83, 124-131.
[3] Yonar, M.E. and Sakin, F. (2011) Ameliorative Effect of Lycopene on Antioxidant Status in Cyprinus carpio during Pyrethroid Deltamethrin Exposure. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 99, 226-231.
[4] Sadeghi, A. and Hedayati, A. (2014) Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata). Iranian Journal of Toxicology, 8, 1124-1129.
[5] Parvez, S. and Raisuddin, S. (2006) Copper Modulates Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants in the Freshwater Fish Channa punctata (Bloch) Exposed to Deltamethrin. Chemosphere, 62, 1324-1332.
[6] Aydin, R., Koprucu, K., Dorucu, M., Koprucu Simsek, S. and Pala, M. (2005) Acute Toxicity of Synthetic Pyrethroidcypermethrin on the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Embryos and Larvae. Aquaculture International, 13, 451-458.
[7] Sayeed, I., Parvez, S., Pandey, S., Bin-Hafeez, B., Haque, R. and Raisuddin, S. (2003) Oxidative Stress Biomarkers of Exposure to Deltamethrin in Freshwater Fish, Channa punctatus Bloch. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 56, 295-302.
[8] Yilmaz, M., Gul, A. and Erbasli, K. (2004) Acute Toxicity of Alpha Cypermethrin to Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859). Chemosphere, 56, 381-385.
[9] Viran, R., UnluErkoc, F., Polat, H. and Kocak, O. (2003) Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Deltamethrin on Guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 55, 82-85.
[10] Saravanan, M., Kumar, K.P. and Ramesh, M. (2011) Haematological and Biochemical Responses of Freshwater Teleost Fish Cyprinus carpio (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) during Acute and Chronic Sublethal Exposure to Lindane. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 100, 206-211.
[11] Authman, M.M.N., Ibrahim, S.A., El-Kasheif, M.A. and Gaber, H.S. (2013) Heavy Metals Pollution & Their Effects on Gills and Liver of the Nile Catfish Clarias gariepinus Inhabiting El-Rahawy Drain, Egypt. Global Veterinaria, 10, 103-115.
[12] Gaber, H.S., El-Kasheif, M.A., Ibrahim, S.A. and Authman, M.M.N. (2013) Effect of Water Pollution in El-Rahawy Drainage Canal on Hematology and Organs of Freshwater Fish Clarias gariepinus. World Applied Sciences Journal, 21, 329-341.
[13] Osman, A.G.M., Koutb, M. and Sayed, A.E.H. (2010) Use of Hematological Parameters to Assess the Efficiency of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) Leaf Extract in Alleviation of the Effect of Ultraviolet—A Radiation on African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, 99, 1-8.
[14] Tuzmen, N., Candan, N., Kaya, E. and Demiryas, N. (2008) Biochemical Effects of Chlorpyrifos and Deltamethrin on Altered Antioxidative Defense Mechanisms and Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Liver. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 26, 119-124.
[15] Winston, G.W. and Di Giulio, R.T. (1991) Prooxidant and Antioxidant Mechanisms in Aquatic Organisms. Aquatic Toxicology, 19, 137-161.
[16] Adams, S.M. and Greeley, M.S. (2000) Ecotoxicological Indicators of Water Quality: Using Multi-Response Indicators to Assess the Health of Aquatic Ecosystems. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 123, 103-115.
[17] Storey, K.B. (1996) Oxidative Stress: Animal Adaptations in Nature. Brazilian Journal of Medical Biological Research, 29, 1715-1733.
[18] Droge, W. (2002) Free Radicals in the Physiological Control of Cell Function. Physiological Reviews, 82, 47-95.
[19] Orbea, A., Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M., Solé, M., Porte, C. and Cajaraville, M.P. (2002) Antioxidant Enzymes and Peroxisome Proliferation in Relation to Contaminant Body Burdens of PAHs and PCBs in Bivalve Molluscs, Crabs and Fish from the Urdaibai and Plentzia Estuaries (Bay of Biscay). Aquatic Toxicology, 58, 75-98.
[20] Ismail, M.F., Ali, D.A., Fernando, A., Abdraboh, M.E., Gaur, R.L., Ibrahim, W.M., Raj, M.H. and Ouhtit, A. (2009) Chemoprevention of Rat Liver Toxicity and Carcinogenesis by Spirulina. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 5, 377-387.
[21] Abdel-Daim, M.M. (2014) Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Spirulina platensis with Erythromycin in Egyptian Baladi Bucks (Capra hircus). Small Ruminant Research, 120, 234-241.
[22] Alvarenga, R.R., Rodrigues, P.B., Cantarelli, V.S., Zangeronimo, M.G., Júnior, J.W.S., Silva, L.R., Santos, L.M. and Pereira, L.J. (2011) Energy Values and Chemical Composition of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) Evaluated with Broilers. Revista Brasileria De Zootecnia, 40, 992-996.
[23] Abdelkhalek, N.K.M., Ghazy, E.W. and Abdel-Daim, M.M. (2015) Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Spirulina platensis and Deltamethrin in Freshwater Fish Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: Impact on Lipid Peroxidation and Oxidative Stress. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 3023-3031.
[24] Nguyen, L.T.H. and Janssen, C.R. (2002) Embryo-Larval Toxicity Tests with the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Comparative Sensitivity of Endpoints. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 42, 256-262.
[25] Adewolu, M.A., Adeniji, C.A. and Adejobi, A.B. (2008) Feed Utilization, Growth and Survival of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Cultured under Different Photoperiods. Aquaculture, 283, 64-67.
[26] Karami, A., Christianus, A., Ishak, Z., Courtenay, S.C., Sayed, M.A., Noor, A.M. and Noor, S.H. (2010) Effect of Triploidization on Juvenile African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Aquaculture International, 18, 851-858.
[27] Ololade, I.A. and Oginni, O. (2010) Toxic Stress and Hematological Effects of Nickel on African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus, Fingerlings. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 2, 14-19.
[28] Mahmoud, U.M., Mekkawy, I.A.A. and Sayed, A.H. (2009) Ultraviolet Radiation-A (366 nm) Induced Morphological and Histological Malformations during Embryogenesis of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Journal of Photochemistry Photobiology B: Biology, 95, 117-128.
[29] Litchfield, J.T. and Wilcoxon, F. (1949) A Simplified Method of Evaluating Dose—Effect Experiments. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 96, 99-113.
[30] Reitman, S. and Frankel, S. (1957) A Colorimetric Method for the Determination of Serum Glutamic Oxalacetic and Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 28, 56-63.
[31] Tietz, N.W., Burtis, C.A., Duncan, P., Ervin, K., Petitclerc, C.J., Rinker, A.D., Shuey, D. and Zygowicz, E.R. (1983) A Reference Method for Measurement of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Human Serum. Clinical Chemistry, 29, 751-761.
[32] Larsen, K. (1972) Creatinine Assay in the Presence of Protein with LKB 8600 Reaction Rate Analyser. Clinica Chimica Acta, 38, 475-476.
[33] Coulombe, J.J. and Favreau, L. (1963) A New Simple Semimicro Method for Colorimetric Determination of Urea. Clinical Chemistry, 9, 102-108.
[34] Whitehead, T.P., Bevan, E.A., Miano, L. and Leonardi, A. (1991) Defects in Diagnostic Kits for Determination of Urate in Serum. Clinical Chemistry, 37, 879-881.
[35] Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. (1951) Protein Measurement with the Folin Phenol Reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193, 265-275.
[36] Doumas, B.T., Watson, W. and Biggs, H.G. (1971) Albumin Standards and the Measurement of Serum Albumin with Bromcresol Green. Clinica Chimica Acta, 31, 87-96.
[37] Mihara, M. and Uchiyama, M. (1978) Determination of Malonaldehyde Precursor in Tissues by Thiobarbituric Acid Test. Analytical Biochemistry, 86, 271-278.
[38] Beutler, E., Duron, O. and Kelly, M.B. (1963) Improved Method for the Determination of Blood GSH. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 61, 883-887.
[39] Nishikimi, M., Roa, N.A. and Yogi, K. (1972) The Occurrence of Supeoxide Anion in the Reaction of Reduced Phenazine Methosulfate and Molecular Oxygen. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications, 46, 849-854.
[40] Aebi, H. (1984) Catalase in Vitro. Method Enzymology, 105, 121-126.
[41] Paglia, D.E. and Valentine, W.N. (1967) Studies on the Quantitative and Qualitative Characterization of Erythrocyte Glutathione Peroxidase. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 70, 158-169.
[42] Datta, M. and Kaviraj, A. (2003) Acute Toxicity of the Synthetic Pyrethroid Deltamethrin to Freshwater Catfish Clarias gariepinus. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 70, 296-299.
[43] Suvetha, L., Saravanan, M., Hur, J.H., Ramesh, M. and Krishnapriya, K. (2015) Acute and Sublethal Intoxication of Deltamethrin in an Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita: Hormonal and Enzymological Responses. Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology, 72, 58-65.
[44] Pawar, B.A., Jaralli, J.M.A. and Shendge, N. (2009) Toxicity and Impact of Deltamethrin on Glycogen Level of Freshwater Fish Puntius chrysopterus (McClelland). Journal of Experimental Zoology, 12, 319-323.
[45] El-Sayed, Y.S., Saad, T.T. and El-Bahr, S.M. (2007) Acute Intoxication of Deltamethrin in Monosex Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus with Special Reference to the Clinical, Biochemical and Haematological Effects. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 24, 212-217.
[46] Bakhshwan, S.A., Marzouk, M.S., Hanna, M.I. and Hamed, H.S. (2009) Some Investigation on the Clinical and Biochemical Alterations Associated with Diazinon Toxicity in Clarias gariepinus. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 13, 173-197.
[47] Amin, K.A. and Hashem, K.S. (2012) Deltamethrin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Biochemical Changes in Tissues and Blood of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Antioxidant Defense and Role of Alpha-Tocopherol. BMC Veterinary Research, 8, 45.
[48] Eminzade, S., Urtaz, F. and Ezzertrrtin, F.V. (2008) Silymarin Protects Liver against Toxic Effects of Antituberculosis Drugs in Experimental Animals. Nutrition &Metabolism, 5, 10-17.
[49] Agrahari, S., Pandey, K.C. and Gopal, K. (2007) Biochemical Alterations Induced by Monocrotophos in the Blood Plasma of Fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 88, 268-272.
[50] Prusty, A.K., Kohli, M.P.S., Sahu, N.P., Pal, A.K., Saharan, N., Mohapatra, S. and Gupta, S.K. (2011) Effect of Short Term Exposure of Fenvalerate on Biochemical and Haematological Responses in Labeo rohita (Hamilton) Fingerlings. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 100, 124-129.
[51] Oruc, E.O. and Usta, D. (2007) Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Response and Neurotoxicity Potential of Diazinon in Different Tissues of Cyprinus carpio. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 23, 48-55.
[52] Velísek, J., Jurcíková, J., Dobsíková, R., Svobodová, Z., Piacková, V., Máchová, J. and Novotny, L. (2007) Effects of Deltamethrin on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 23, 297-301.
[53] Kadry, S.M., Marzouk, M.S., Amer, A.M., Hanna, M.I., Azmy, A.H. and Hamed, H.S. (2012) Vitamin E as Antioxidant in Female African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Exposed to Chronic Toxicity of Atrazine. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 16, 83-98.
[54] Tu, H.T., Silvestre, F., Meulder, B., Thome, J.P., Phuong, N.T. and Kestemont, P. (2012) Combined Effects of Deltamethrin, Temperature and Salinity on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Chemosphere, 86, 83-91.
[55] Yonar, M.E., Yonar, S.M., Pala, A., Silici, S. and Saglam, N. (2015) Trichlorfon-Induced Haematological and Biochemical Changes in Cyprinus carpio: Ameliorative Effect of Propolis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 114, 209-216.
[56] Upasani, C.D. and Balaraman, R. (2003) Protective Effect of Spirulina on Lead Induced Deleterious Changes in the Lipid Peroxidation and Endogenous Antioxidants in Rats. Phytotherapy Research, 17, 330-334.
[57] Hamed, H.S. (2015) Vitamin E Attenuated the Oxidative Stress and Biochemical Changes Induced by Endosulfan in Female Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 7, 313-324.
[58] Kavitha, P. and Venkateswara Rao, J. (2009) Sub Lethal Effects of Profenofos on Tissue-Specific Antioxidative Responses in a Euryhyaline Fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72, 1727-1733.
[59] Stara, A., Machova, J. and Velisek, J. (2012) Effect of Chronic Exposure to Simazine on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Response in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 33, 334-343.
[60] Hamed, H.S. (2015) Impact of a Short-Term Malathion Exposure of Nile Tilapia, (Oreochromis niloticus): The Protective Role of Selenium. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 3, 30-37.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.