Optimization of the Angle of Frog in Mouldboard Tillage Operations in Sandy Clay Soil


This paper investigated the effect of three independent variables including: tillage speed (ranges of below 2.5 m/s and between 2.5 m/s and 5 m/s), tillage depth (range of 10 cm from 0 cm to 30 cm) and frog angle (30° 40°, and 50°) on draught forces. The experimental work was completed with determination of the draught forces using an analytical method (Saunders Equation). Numerical Simulation: Discrete Element Method (DEM) was used to verify the results obtained analytically. The results indicated that tillage depth has a stronger influence on the draught forces as compared to the tillage speed. Minimal draught forces can then be achieved through operating at shallow tillage depth and maintaining a frog angle of 30°. The results showed a variance of ±15.95% to the calculated values supporting DEM as a numerical method capable of predicting draft forces correctly, tillage power optimization and determination of optimal frog angle for the mouldboard plough.

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Hiuhu, A. , Gitau, A. , Mbuge, D. and Mulwa, J. (2015) Optimization of the Angle of Frog in Mouldboard Tillage Operations in Sandy Clay Soil. Open Journal of Optimization, 4, 131-140. doi: 10.4236/ojop.2015.44013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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